Why is it necessary to measure hot water in an apartment and how is it carried out

Because of the terrible sound under the ground at a depth of 12 kilometers, the Kola superdeep well was nicknamed "a well to hell." To this day, it remains the deepest well in the world, which was included 24 years ago in the Guinness Book of Records. The well, which had scientific significance, soon overgrown with mystical legends associated with unusual sounds from the "underworld".

What makes the Kola very deep well unique

Experts started drilling the well at the end of May 1970. Initially, a serial Uralmash-4E drilling rig was used for this purpose. It is designed for prospecting and exploration of oil and gas fields.

To a depth of 7 thousand meters, drilling was carried out in the usual mode, since the drill collided with homogeneous granites. Then the drill began to pass through solid rocks, because of this, the well began to crumble. Therefore, we had to use the Uralmash-15000 installation from a depth of 7263 m.

However, the drill was often jammed by the rock, because of this, it broke off during the ascent. The lost part of the drill was cemented and continued to be drilled with deviation. During drilling, accidents often occurred, for this reason the wellbore looked like a crown of a tree with various branches.

Thus, the geological exploration expedition led by David Guberman took place in the period from 1970-1991. During this time, its depth was 12262 m, at which the sensors recorded a temperature of + 212 ° C. Due to several accidents, it was closed in 1994.

Why the well in the Murmansk region was a very secret object

Due to the in-depth study of the structure of the Baltic Shield and the information obtained about the composition and condition of the rock, which significantly differed from the information available before drilling the well, a reasonable interpretation of geophysical sources appeared. These data were of great importance for clarifying tectonic problems. During the research, other valuable information about the bowels of the Earth was also revealed.

This well was a secret object not only because it was located in the border area, next to important mineral deposits, but also because Soviet specialists wanted to keep the priority in the scientific field of studying the lithosphere.

But, since 1970, when one of the top managers of the Academy of Sciences in Czechoslovakia visited it for the first time, the entire scientific world learned about the Kola deep well. Delegations of geologists and reporters from different countries of the world began to come to the village of Zapolyarny, to whom they were shown the rig at work.

Sounds underground at a depth of 12 kilometers, which came from; well to hell

Norm of temperature of hot water in the apartment

In accordance with the current regulations, citizens' apartments connected to a centralized hot water supply system must be supplied with hot water with a temperature of at least 60 ° C.

These standards have established maximum permissible deviations from this minimum. So, in the period from 0-00 to 5-00, the deviation can be 5 ° C, and in the remaining time, the maximum deviation can be 3 ° C.

Thus, taking into account the maximum permissible deviations, the hot water temperature during the daytime cannot be lower than 57 ° C, and at night - 55 ° C.

Why the temperature may be below normal

Temperature norms for hot water allow small deviations: by 5 ° C at night, by 3 ° C during the day (from 5.0 to 24.0).

There are a number of other reasons for deviating from the standards for hot water supply.

  • DHW stub circuit. At night, the water is not disassembled, and in a dead-end scheme, it freezes along the length of the pipeline from the point of water parsing to the unit with hot water circulation. To change the situation, you need to conduct a circulating water supply in the house.
  • The cold water pressure in the pipeline is stronger than the hot water pressure. As a result, cold water can be mixed in through the mixer or boiler. In this case, there will be a long procedure to find out in which apartment the admixture is taking place.
  • Poor circulation of hot water, resulting in reduced heating in towel warmers. Enhanced circulation is required.
  • Unauthorized changes to the hot water supply system, for example: arrangement of heated water floors in a bathroom with a connection through a coil. Additional floor heating in the bathroom reduces the hot water temperature. The solution to the problem is to cancel the unauthorized system change.
  • Closed DHW circuit, in which heat exchangers are used to heat the heating water. Heating is carried out when it cools down. Such a scheme is fraught with a decrease in the water temperature for various reasons: clogged filters, breakdown of the circulation pump, failure of the temperature controller, etc. According to the 2010 Federal Law "On Heat Supply" (No. 190-FZ), from January 1, 2022. Closed-circuit hot water supply is not allowed.

Whatever the reason, if the hot water supply does not meet the established standards, residents have the right to file a claim.

Temperature standards for hot water according to SanPin

SanPiN 2.. ... 496-09, which were approved by the decree of the chief state sanitary doctor of the Russian Federation dated 07. 4. 009, No. 20, set the minimum temperature of hot water entering the apartments at 60 ° C. The same document also defines its maximum possible temperature, which is 75 ° C.

Because of the terrible sound under the ground at a depth of 12 kilometers, the Kola superdeep well was nicknamed

Meter types

Water meters make it possible to accurately and continuously control water flow. With high water tariffs, meters are a popular device for most apartment owners. For this reason, many different models of water meters have appeared on the market and it is very important to be able to understand this issue. There are several types of water meters:

  • A conventional mechanical device for water metering - using a simple mechanism, it records the flow rate, which is reflected on a conventional display.
  • Similar to a mechanical water meter, but a more modern look with a mechanical filling, but with an electronic display, which allows you to get the most accurate readings.
  • Electronic models - equipped with full-function LCD displays. They can be read remotely.
  • Digital Smart Models - capture readings and send them to the email address provided by the home owner.

Now there are also models of volatile and non-volatile water metering devices. Non-volatile ones do not need a power source, and the second version of water meters must be connected to the mains or battery.

Types and types of water meters

There are several types of water meters, but all of them can be divided into two main groups: non-volatile (use mechanical processes) and volatile (need electricity).

There are generally four types of counters:

Tachometer impeller water meters

Tachometric (turbine or vane). Refers to mechanical devices (non-volatile). The main work piece is a small turbine or impeller that is in the water. The amount of water is calculated by the number of revolutions that the impeller makes. The rotations of the impeller axis make the mechanical counter move. It works with any water (hard, with a high iron content, etc.), but the accuracy of the readings is not very high, there is a possibility that after a few years the impeller will overgrow and begin to rotate more slowly. But it may happen that it will spin faster than necessary. In general, the option is inexpensive and this type of meters is mainly installed in apartments. Induction or electromagnetic. This appliance requires electricity to operate. The operation of the device is based on the ability of water to conduct electricity. The device is expensive, the service life is long - more than 10 years, in the absence of foreign inclusions in the water and rust / scale in the pipes, it gives accurate data. Since clear water and the ideal state of the pipeline are not about our networks, they are rarely installed.

Electromagnetic (induction) water meter

  • Ultrasonic. They also require a power supply. The principle of operation is a comparison of the speed of propagation of ultrasound "along" and "against" the flow. The accuracy is high, but also only on clean pipes. The price is even higher, although the service life is around 15 years.
  • Vortex. They analyze the rate of formation of a vortex street behind a specially shaped obstacle. The behavior of the water vortex is analyzed by an electronic device (power supply is also required). They work normally only with clean water without impurities, the service life is about 8 years.
  • From all that has been said above, it turns out that in our real conditions - old pipes and not the cleanest water - only tachometric meters are suitable. They are basically installed.

    What is the coordination of the boundaries of a land plot?

    Agreeing the boundaries of a land plot is one of the procedures for land surveying, which regulates obtaining the consent of the rightholder of the adjacent (neighboring) land plot to establish boundaries in coordinates, according to the land survey plan.

    What is it for? For example, you own a land plot, the boundaries of which have not been established in accordance with land legislation, in other words, the plot has not been demarcated. A land plot that is not demarcated means that the boundaries have approximate, not exact coordinates. Likewise, a neighboring land plot may have approximate coordinates (boundaries).

    Therefore, in order to reduce conflicts between neighbors, the legislation provides for a mandatory procedure for agreeing the borders between neighbors whose land plots are not demarcated. In other words, the neighbors need to agree on where the common border of the plots will pass and fix this in the act of coordinating the borders.

    When can you do without your neighbor's consent?

    In certain situations, persons who are the owners of neighboring plots do not always come to the meetings held.

    The legislation provides for the possibility of specifying boundaries without the direct presence of such persons.

    Neighbor Absent

    Theoretically, the owner of the site can send an official notification of the absence of claims or entrust the representation of their interests to third parties.

    Such a situation will mean agreement with all the actions taken by the cadastral engineer.

    All protests and claims from neighbors who did not attend the meeting can be accepted exclusively through the courts.

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