Toilet paper - description, when it appeared, what it is made of, features of different types, how to choose

Despite the fact that now there are many modern building materials, plywood still firmly occupies its niche. Many options for sheet sizes and thicknesses greatly simplify installation. And the possibility of any finishing adds even more points in its favor.

Plywood putty for subsequent finishing

Plywood is a wood-based building material consisting of veneer layers glued together. The veneer can be coniferous, birch or deciduous, it is glued together in different directions to increase the bending strength of the final sheet.

Is it possible to do this, process features

If you plan to paint the walls and ceiling, and plywood sheets were used during the construction, then the question is quite reasonable whether it is possible to putty plywood. Experts believe that it is not only possible, but also necessary. The main feature is that it is a wooden material and it is important to choose the right building mixtures for work.

Putty for plywood is allowed only on certain grades of sheets (FSF, FSF-TV, FB, BBS, FC), since moisture resistance is a mandatory requirement for the material.

Like other wood-based materials, plywood must be impregnated with deep penetration soil with antiseptic properties. Particular attention is paid to the joints of the sheets.

The filling process itself does not differ from working with other surfaces.

Wood fiber board finishing technology

Before starting to putty on plywood, all sheets must be thoroughly dedusted and treated with a moisture-resistant wood primer twice. Sheets can rarely be adjusted absolutely evenly and if there are differences, then they need to be sanded before leveling.

Then the gaps between the sheets are filled with putty, fasteners and other irregularities, if any, are covered. If the distance between the sheets is large, then a serpyanka is glued to the first layer of the mixture. After re-puttying and drying of the solution, sand the surface with emery paper.

Technology of spackling plywood for painting or wallpaper

It is difficult to imagine the life of a modern person without hygiene devices. The most demanded of them is toilet paper. It is made from several types of raw materials and varies in color, thickness, appearance and usability.

Toilet paper - description

A hygiene product consists of sheets rolled up or joined together in a bundle. Toilet paper is often white, but it can also be produced in other shades. The roll can be solid or have a bushing in the center, with which it is attached to special holders. Most manufacturers produce toilet paper in widths from 8 to 12 cm.The length of a roll is from 20 to 70 m. / P>

Room preparation

When looking for a place to locate a workshop, it is necessary to be guided by sanitary standards, which prescribe a distance of 100 m to the nearest water bodies and residential buildings. Therefore, it is better for an entrepreneur to use some kind of hangar or warehouse on the outskirts of the city, where the rent does not exceed 200-300 rubles / m² per month.

To equip an enterprise with a capacity of 2–5 tons of products per day, a room with an area of ​​150 m² is sufficient: the lines for the production of toilet paper, designed specifically for small businesses, are small in size. The workshop space should be divided into:

  • Area for receiving and storing waste paper;
  • Warehouse for packaging and other raw materials;
  • Production area;
  • Warehouse finished products;
  • Administrative and household premises.

When preparing a toilet paper workshop, it is necessary to fulfill certain requirements that are imposed by manufacturers of technological equipment and various regulatory bodies. So:

  • The length of the production room must be at least 15 meters for the correct placement of the machines;
  • The installation of the paper machine and the exhaust hood above it requires a ceiling height of at least 4 meters;
  • The power consumption of the steam toilet paper machine is 55 kW. Power of electrical mini-factories - from 135 kW;
  • The power line must provide power for machines and devices with a voltage of both 220 V and 380 V;
  • The workshop must be connected to the water supply and sewerage systems, which will ensure the supply and discharge of water in a volume of at least 3 m³ per day;
  • The air temperature in the production room at any time of the year should not fall below 16 ° С and rise above 25 ° С;
  • A fume hood over the paper machine must ensure efficient removal of water vapor;
  • The workshop foundation is poured according to the equipment manufacturer's scheme. A recycle water supply pit with a volume of 5–8 m³ is installed in the floor;
  • The production of toilet paper from waste paper is considered fire hazardous, so the workshop is equipped with a fire extinguishing system and fire extinguishers.

When did toilet paper appear?

The first mentions of this hygiene product date back to 589 AD. ... Toilet paper originated in China. The first samples were bundles of sheets fastened together. Special paper impregnated with aromatic oils was supplied for the imperial court. Manufacturing technologies and manufacturing features were kept by the Chinese in strict secrecy, so the rest of the world learned about the existence of this hygiene product much later.

There is no definite answer to the question of who invented toilet paper. In the usual roll form, the product was first released by the German entrepreneur Hans Klenck in 1928. He only invented a new form - before that, toilet paper was supplied in the form of sheets folded in a bundle. Europeans first became acquainted with the invention at the end of the 19th century. Mass production of toilet paper was launched in the UK. Initially, it was called "paper curlers" so as not to embarrass people who are embarrassed to pronounce the real name of the item.

Financial Settlements

Putty plywood for subsequent finishing - is it possible to do this, process features. Types of plywood and methods of processing it for painting or wallpaper, how to choose the right mixture, consumption per m2. Putty application methods, tools

Not only beginners sometimes make wiring with errors, but also experienced electricians. The consequences are very dangerous in any case. They can manifest themselves, for example, in an unforeseen breakdown of expensive household appliances. And also cause electric shock to people. As a rule, one of the following circumstances becomes the source of problems.

Wrong scheme

In principle, installation is always preceded by the creation of a wiring diagram. It usually covers the whole house at once. It is wrong to conduct electrical wiring in a separate room without taking into account the rest. This careless approach results in an excessive number of wire connections. Moreover, the reliability of the power grid is significantly reduced because of this.

In the future, the initially prepared diagram should be kept in the house. To serve as a source of accurate information for problems and repairs.

Poor quality components

Low-quality, cheap electrical products are probably most often sold from China. Using them in order to save money results in huge losses. Because the wiring does not support the rated load. The result is a short circuit, fire.

But this will not happen if you pay due attention to the quality of each element of the power grid.

Material purchased without inventory

On average, the implementation of any wiring diagram usually takes 20% more materials than was originally calculated. Moreover, in order to increase the reliability of the network, the cable cross-section is taken with a small margin in excess of the nominal.

This approach is, in principle, the right way to insure yourself against annoying accidents. And also from overloading the wiring. If the sockets, cable, switches were purchased from the very beginning with a margin, during the installation process you will not need to spend precious time on purchasing the missing one.

The wiring was done without taking into account the power of electrical appliances

A power outlet is required to plug in a household appliance. The maximum load of 3.5 kW can be sustained, as a rule, by conventional 16-amp sockets.

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