Direct-flow water supply is a system consisting of a pumping station and pipe bends. Circulating water supply is a more economical option, since it uses fewer resources. The concept of heating cold water for domestic hot water means heating cold water to obtain hot water supply. An additional line appeared in receipts for paying for this service. You should understand in detail how legitimate the charges are.
All services in receipts are regulated by article 154 in the Housing Code. Cold water supply means cold water supply and DHW means hot water supply.
Residential and industrial premises should be provided with an optimal temperature.
According to the accepted standards, the values should be in the range of + 50-60 ° С.
Operators adjust readings based on environmental conditions. Central and autonomous systems are used for heating. Central water users pay for DHW heating. Residents of autonomous equipment pay for gas and electricity.
General lawyer. Specializes in family matters, civil, criminal and housing law
Cold water heating service includes several parameters. There are dead-end and looped boiler rooms that ensure the operation of the entire system. Uninterrupted operation is ensured with the help of equipment and optimal working conditions.
In the receipt, the DHW service includes:
Accordingly, the payment is received for heat and water.
Residents facing systematic temperature losses are forced to burn water on their own using a boiler and other automatic devices. The DHW service also remains in their receipts. To understand this situation, you need to refer to the legislation.
Requirements for the coolant temperature are set out in the regulatory documents that establish the design, installation and use of engineering systems for residential and public buildings. They are described in the State Building Regulations and Rules:
For the calculated supply water temperature, the figure is taken, which is equal to the temperature of the water leaving the boiler, according to its passport data.
For individual heating, it is necessary to decide what the coolant temperature should be, taking into account the following factors:
According to SNiP 2. 4. 5 "Heating, ventilation and air conditioning" (clause 3. 0) the limit values of the heat carrier are as follows:
Depending on external factors, the water temperature in the heating system can be from 30 to 90 ° C. When heated above 90 ° C, dust and paintwork begin to decompose. For these reasons, sanitary standards prohibit more heating.
To calculate optimal indicators, special charts and tables can be used, in which norms are determined depending on the season:
The methodology for calculating water consumption in multi-apartment buildings (MKD) is associated with such additional issues as availability:
In the event that a person or family lives in a private house, then an additional item will be the use of water for irrigation purposes.
Consumption table according to SNIP 2. 4. 1-85
If, for objective reasons, you install and use a meter, the following principle of calculating the cost of water consumption by residents is applied: the water consumption standard per person is multiplied by the number of people registered (permanently and temporarily) on the living space and by the tariff in force in the region (cost one cubic meter of water). This rule is spelled out in paragraph 42 of the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 354.
In Moscow for 2021, a tariff for cold water consumption is set in the amount of 38.7 rubles per cubic meter, hot water - 191.72 rubles per cubic meter of water.
As mentioned above, the rate of water per person without a meter in each region is calculated according to the methodology approved in the field.
So in Moscow, the water norm per person per month living in an apartment building in an apartment that is not equipped with water meters is calculated according to the following standards (in cubic meters):
The optimal temperature level of water in an apartment building for 2021 was adopted by the Government of Russia and approved by the Chief Sanitary Doctor of Russia. According to current regulations, citizens must receive hot water no colder than 60 ° C.
Attention! If you have any questions, you can consult for free in the chat with a lawyer at the bottom of the screen or call Moscow; St. Petersburg; Free call for all of Russia.
These regulations also take into account deviations from the norm, which are considered acceptable. Their meaning depends on time. So, at night, from zero to five in the morning, the largest deviation from 60 ° C is 5 ° C, the rest of the time, temperature fluctuations around 3 ° C are considered normal.
Taking into account the permissible changes, the optimal hot water temperature is 57 ° C during the day and 55 ° C at night. If temperature fluctuations during the day exceed the indicated indicators, then the consumer can apply for a reduction in the cost of payments for hot water supply by 0.% for each hour of the period in which a deviation from the permissible norms was allowed. In a situation where the temperature drops to 40 ° C and below, the owner may not pay for hot water supply and rely on tariffs for cold water supply.
To reduce utility bills, a special act should be drawn up, in which it is necessary to record all fluctuations in the temperature of hot water from the tap in the apartment in 2021 during the day.
The lower bar of the temperature regime depends on the type of system:
In an open system, the heat loss is greater, therefore a higher limit is set for them.
If the temperature of hot water in the tap is below the permissible level, this can lead to contamination with infectious pathogens and bacteria.
The standard for the temperature of hot water in an apartment provides for slight fluctuations in indicators: