Methods of processing and using natural gas in Russia

Collection and sorting of raw materials for processing

Plastic recycling, as a business, primarily attracts a small number of competitors and the volume of free consumables.

  • Opening of points for the reception of plastic products and pvd waste.
  • Recycling of defective plastic products, work with enterprises directly.
  • Placement of special waste bins made of plastic and film, by agreement with the city municipal authorities.

Raw materials for processing are unloaded and sorted manually. With small production volumes, a couple of people will be enough for this stage.

Containers are examined and unusable containers are removed:

  • Plastic bottles in the wrong color (usually red).
  • Bottles containing liquid.
  • Containers containing household chemicals or oil.
  • Confectionery container liners.
  • Foreign objects not related to PET raw materials.

The raw materials obtained during processing (PET granules and flex) are in demand among manufacturers of plastic products, chemical fibers and even fuels. At the same time, the cost of consumables is several times lower than processed raw materials.

Stages and methods of recycling plastic waste

Plastic recycling consists of several stages:

  • collection ;
  • sorting (by color, by quality, clean / dirty waste);
  • pressing;
  • < li> actual processing - washing, cutting, drying;
  • production of new products.

Plastic recycling methods:

  • By pyrolysis. With this method of processing, plastics are processed under the influence of high temperatures in special chambers without access to oxygen. The product of this process is gas, heat energy and fuel oil.
  • A separate type is multicircuit pyrolysis. At high temperatures (over 600ºC) in an oxygen-free environment, the plastic melts and then is fed into a multi-circuit circulation system. This allows the plastic to be purified from toxic substances and a cleaner fuel is obtained.
  • By hydrolysis. In vacuum tanks, small plastic scrap is degraded by water, acid solutions and high temperature. This is an energy-consuming method, and it only pays for itself on a large scale of processing.
  • With dihydric alcohols. A subtype of hydrolysis that uses ethylene glycol and higher temperatures. Also, catalysts are used to minimize the time of chemical reactions. It is not very demanding on the raw materials, but the resulting plastic is not suitable for food use.
  • By methanolysis. The most popular heat treatment method. In tanks with high temperatures, plastics are broken down with methanol. This method is also suitable only for large-scale processing, moreover, it is explosive.
  • By machining. The plastic is first sorted, then it is sent for preliminary crushing, washing and drying. The resulting fragments are melted and either poured into molds right on the spot, or crushed into granules, which are used as raw materials in other industries.

Plants for plastic processing in Russia

Plastic recycling as a business: where to start

What is natural gas?

There is no single chemical formula for natural gas - in each field it has a composition with a different ratio of its constituent components.

Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons, most of which is methane. The rest of the components are: butane, propane, ethane, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide.

Natural gas is colorless and odorless, its presence in the air cannot be determined without the help of special devices. The smell familiar to every person is artificially imparted to the gas (odorization). Through this process, it is possible to sense the presence of gas in the air and prevent life-threatening situations.

Origin

There is no single theory regarding the origin of the gas, scientists adhere to two versions:

How much associated gas is flared in Russia?

Surprisingly, no one knows reliable information about the amount of gas burned. There are only rough estimates, which vary significantly. So, for example, according to the assessment of the "spy" satellites, which observe burning Russian torches from the Earth's orbit, a total of about 60 billion cubic meters of gas is burned per year. According to official estimates of environmentalists - about 13 billion. According to the estimates of oil production companies, no more than 10 billion, and at one of the meetings, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the figure of 20 billion cubic meters. And here are some interesting data from the Accounts Chamber (source). So, in 2009, according to her data, only seven largest oil companies, Lukoil, TNK-BP, Gazprom Neft, Russneft, Bashneft and Slavneft) burned in flares 19.96 billion m³ of associated oil gas, which amounted to 64.3% (!) of its total production. In any case, even the weighted average estimates show that every year the amount of gas burned in flares is comparable to a third (!) Of the volume of gas exports to Europe. What to do with this huge resource, which does not bring any profit, and even eats up additional money? The question is still open.

Production

Contrary to popular belief, natural gas can be underground not only in voids, extraction from which does not require significant material and energy costs. It often concentrates inside rocks with such a fine porous structure that the human eye cannot see it. The depth of the deposits may be shallow, but sometimes it reaches several kilometers.

The gas production process includes several stages:

  • Geological work, as a result of which the places of deposits are precisely determined.
  • Drilling production wells. It is carried out throughout the entire territory of the field, which is important for uniform reduction of gas pressure in the reservoir. The maximum well depth is 12 km.
  • Loot. The process is carried out due to the different levels of pressure in the gas reservoir and the earth's surface. Through the wells, gas tends to the outside - to where the pressure is lower, immediately falling into the collection system. In addition, associated gas is produced, which is a by-product in oil production. It is also of value to many industries.
  • Preparing for shipment. The produced gas contains numerous impurities. If their quantity is insignificant, the gas is transported by tankers or pipelines to the plant for further processing. Natural gas is purified from a significant amount of impurities at integrated treatment units that are being built near the field.