Waste paper recycling: history and modernity

Collection of waste paper in our country has gone through several stages: weekly delivery in schools, organizations; after the inhabitants of the country decided to raise this feat by creating Stimul stores /. Here, cardboard, paper, and also old woven things were exchanged for books or other values ​​of the end of the era of the country of the Unions.

Today, GOST 10700-97 is applied to the collection of all types of waste paper, which introduces a sorting qualification for this type of secondary raw materials, only three groups A, B, C.

However, despite this, in the waste paper prima points located within the city: schools, offices, the price for all types of paper or cardboard raw materials is set on average and ultimately the same. Although after the organization carries out the collection of waste paper or immediately before that, its employees can sort the goods into three types of waste paper, respectively, pack it and hand over some types at a higher price.

A - High quality group

It includes the following brands of waste paper: MS-1A, MS-2A, MS-3A, MS-4A.

The most expensive waste paper is:

White paper scraps - high grade waste paper

This category is of the highest quality of papers and newspaper editions do not fall into it, even on white, glossy sheets.

Waste paper types - groups, brands, grades

To facilitate the selection of raw materials, the state standardization system has developed the labeling of paper waste. So, according to GOST 10700-97, there are 13 brands of waste paper in Russia.

Depending on the quality of raw materials, it is customary to divide waste paper into 3 main groups:

Waste paper recycling: history and modernity

Composition of sewage sludge

  • sediments from the grid surface;
  • sediments with sandy elements;
  • heavy forms of waste from primary sedimentation tanks;
  • components from the bottom, obtained by interaction with coagulating substances;
  • activated sludge used for biochemical water purification in aerotanks;
  • a film of biological origin, located on the surface of wastewater in biofilters; <
  • a mixture of activated sludge and heavy effluent components.

Components of sewage sludge (WWS):

  • 80-85% - constituents of fatty, protein and carbohydrate nature.
  • 60-80% - solid organic matter.
  • Residual volume - elements of lignin and humus.

Depending on the predominant component of WWS, they differ:

  • mineral ;
  • organic ;
  • mixed.

The sludge, which consists of wet sediments remaining at the bottom of the treatment plant, contains nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. Trace elements are often used in agriculture as fertilizers. Long-term presence of such substances leads to decay, the release of biogas. They also provoke a paradoxical reaction when the sediment, instead of falling out, floats to the surface of the water. Therefore, the containers need to be cleaned regularly.

Sludge pads cannot be classified as waste disposal facilities

Given that this issue is currently not legally regulated, Rosprirodnadzor initiated participation in a meeting held at the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia on August 26, 2015 under the chairmanship of the Deputy Minister of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation R. Gizatulin, at which it was decided to be guided by the position set forth earlier by the letters of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia dated November 6, 2013 No. 05-12-44 / 21713, dated August 18, 2014 No. 05-12-44 / 18132, until the legislative settlement of this issue. Sludge sites are considered to be engineering structures for the treatment and dewatering of sewage sludge and cannot be classified as waste disposal facilities. Based on the requirements for sewage sludge treatment facilities provided for in clause 9.. 4. section 9.. 4 of the Code of Rules SP 32. 3330. 012 SNiP 2. 4. 3-85 “Sewerage. External networks and structures ", sediments formed in the process of wastewater treatment (sand from sand traps, sediment from primary sedimentation tanks, excess activated sludge, etc.) must be treated for the purpose of dehydration, stabilization, odor reduction, disinfection, improvement of physical and mechanical properties ensuring the possibility of their environmentally safe disposal or placement (storage or disposal) in the environment. In accordance with Art. 1 of the Federal Law of June 24, 1998 No. 89-FZ "On Production and Consumption Waste", waste neutralization is a reduction in the mass of waste, a change in its composition, physical and chemical properties (including incineration and (or) disinfection in specialized installations) in order to reduce negative impact of waste on human health and the environment. Considering that the placement of sludge (waste) generated in the process of wastewater treatment (in particular, "sludge (sludge) of biological treatment facilities of household and mixed sewage systems", "excess sludge of biological treatment facilities of household and mixed wastewaters", " sludge stabilized biological treatment facilities of domestic and mixed wastewater "), is carried out, among other things, in order to reduce the mass of waste, change the physical and chemical properties, as well as reduce the level of negative impact on human health and the environment, it is advisable to read sludge maps (sites ) an object of waste disposal.

What you need to pay attention to in the article:

We accept: corrugated board, cardboard, archive (used office paper); old books, newspapers, magazines, leaflets, used notebooks, paper bags.

Is this liquid household waste?

According to the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated 10. 2. 997 No. 155 "On approval of the rules for the provision of services for the removal of liquid household waste"

"liquid household waste" - household wastewater generated as a result of the vital activity of the population and discharged into structures and devices that are not connected (technologically not connected) to a centralized drainage system and intended for receiving and accumulating wastewater ...

Refer to the Federal Classification Catalog of Wastes (FCCO), section 7:

"WASTE IN WATER SUPPLY, WATER DISCHARGE, ACTIONS FOR COLLECTION, TREATMENT, RECYCLING, DECOMPOSITION, DISPOSAL OF WASTE

(with the exception of water, the removal of which is carried out by means of their purification at treatment facilities with subsequent direction to the circulating water supply system or discharge into water bodies)

Thus, wastewater is generated if wastewater disposal occurs:

  • through treatment facilities with further discharge into the circulating water supply system
  • discharge into a water body
  • through a centralized sewerage system.

In other cases, it is liquid household waste.

There are a lot of articles on the Internet that criticize the way it is classified as wastewater or waste, depending on the method of disposal. Below in the article there are 2 clarifications on this issue.

Sawdust is the waste generated from felling and wood processing.

Despite their common name, they differ in many ways, which determine the further use of this material.

In this article, we will talk about the different types of sawdust and the main differences that affect their applicability for certain jobs.

Humidity

The moisture content of woody biomass is a quantitative characteristic showing the moisture content of biomass. Distinguish between absolute and relative humidity of biomass.

Absolute moisture is the ratio of the mass of moisture to the mass of dry wood:

where Wa - absolute humidity,%; m is the mass of the sample in a wet state, g; m0 is the mass of the same sample, dried to a constant value, g

Relative or working humidity is the ratio of the mass of moisture to the mass of wet wood:

where Wp - relative, or working, humidity,%

When calculating wood drying processes, absolute moisture is used. In heat engineering calculations, only relative, or working, humidity is used. Taking into account this established tradition, in the future, we will only use relative humidity.

There are two forms of moisture contained in woody biomass: bound (hygroscopic) and free. Bound moisture is located inside the cell walls and is held by physicochemical bonds; removal of this moisture is associated with additional energy costs and significantly affects most properties of the wood substance.

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