Pollution of the planet has already become an environmental problem in all countries, because only a small amount of waste is carefully disposed of.
Landfills are dangerous in the form of:
Garbage shortens the duration and quality of human life, so this is a common problem for mankind.
In many countries, they have learned not only to dispose of waste, but also to use it in everyday life. In America, trash houses are widespread. Recycling enterprises not only process solid waste (solid household waste), but also extract electrical and thermal energy during processing.
With further development, this industry will be able to replace up to 30% of all generated electricity. Getting energy from waste will solve the environmental problem of pollution of the Earth.
Recycling of waste into electricity is called Waste to Energy (WtE) at the global level and means the conversion of waste into energy.
Methods of processing: combustion at incinerators, gasification, construction of gas wells at landfills. There are types of energy production without waste - alternative energy sources:
In the same April days of 1970, perhaps the most dramatic story of everything that happened in space was played out. Three astronauts who went to the moon were in mortal danger and were forced to return home for three days, overcoming various difficulties that arose. This is a very beautiful story about how small changes in the specification can lead to big problems, about the well-coordinated work of hundreds of people in the MCC in a rush mode, about courage and professionalism.
As it regularly happens in complex technical systems and large projects, the cause of the accident was laid down years before the flight of Apollo 13, and the accident itself was formed from a complex chain of events, moreover, the absence of any link would lead to the absence of an accident.
In order to understand what happened, you need to talk about the design of the Apollo service module:
The energy subsystem of the Apollo service module consisted of two hydrogen tanks, two oxygen tanks and three fuel cells. Fuel cells, consuming hydrogen and oxygen, produced electricity and water, which was consumed by the crew for drinking and cooling equipment. It was a very efficient system, better than solar panels, provided the flight was no longer than 2-3 weeks.
This is the oxygen tank of the Apollo service module. It is so well insulated that it can store liquid oxygen for years. Liquid oxygen is stored in it in a supercritical fluid state, and, therefore, exhibits the properties of both a liquid and a gas. As is known, the gas temperature decreases during expansion. The thermal insulation is so good that liquid oxygen would cool and lose its supercritical properties simply from expansion at normal fuel cell consumption.
Therefore, we had to install a special heater to maintain the required temperature and pressure. In zero gravity, liquid oxygen in a supercritical state had the bad habit of stratifying into liquid and gaseous layers, which led to incorrect readings of the level sensor. Therefore, we had to install a special turbine for mixing oxygen, and for the crew, a procedure for mixing oxygen in the tanks was added to the “housework” set, so that after it the Houston MCC could receive correct data on the amount of oxygen on board.
1965. There are still five years before the flight of Apollo 13, and another year before the first unmanned flight of AS-201, even the Gemini program made its first manned flight only this year. Work is being actively carried out on the Apollo spacecraft. Due to the enormous scale of the work, NASA contractors hire subcontractors to manufacture the necessary components. The Apollo service module was made by North American Aviation, and the tanks for it were made by the subcontractor Beech Aircraft. Since the fuel cells delivered 28 volts of voltage, the tank specification indicated an operating voltage of 28 volts.
However, already in the process of developing the service module, it turned out that in preparation for the launch, Apollo will receive electricity from the ground-based generators of the launch complex, and they have an operating voltage of 65 volts (a completely normal situation when there are many qualified people make a big project, no jokes). Therefore, the specification had to be redone. Beech Aircraft engineers changed the equipment of the oxygen tank, but forgot to change only one thing under the new voltage - the thermostat contacts. They are designed to open the heater circuit when needed. Quality control at all levels - Beech Aircraft, North American Aviation and NASA did not notice this error.
1968. The tanks, which ended up on Apollo 13, are being installed in a service module that will become part of Apollo 10. Since changes were made to the tanks, after a while it was decided to install the newer version of the tanks on the Apollo-10, and remove the already installed ones, modernize them and put them on another service module. In the process of removing the tanks, the workers forgot to unscrew one bolt, and the winch, which had already begun to lift the shelf with the tanks, skidded and dropped the tanks back into the rack.
Today, many people, even people far from medicine, are familiar with such a term as nosocomial infection. It includes any disease that either a patient receives as a result of his seeking help from a medical institution, or the organization's personnel in the performance of their functional duties. According to statistics, in surgical hospitals the level of pyoinflammatory complications after clean operations is 12-16%, in gynecological departments complications after operations develop in 11-14% of women. After studying the morbidity structure, it became obvious that from 7 to 14% of newborns are infected in maternity hospitals and children's departments.
Of course, such a picture can not be observed in all medical organizations and their prevalence depends on many factors, such as the type of institution, the nature of the care provided, the intensity of nosocomial infections transmission mechanisms, and its structure. Against this background, one of the main non-specific measures to prevent the onset and transmission of nosocomial infection is the disinfection and sterilization of medical devices.
In their work, all healthcare facilities are guided by the recommendations recorded in many regulatory documents. The basic document is SanPiN (disinfection and sterilization of medical products is highlighted in a separate section). The last revision was approved in 2010. Also, the following normative acts are related to determining the work of medical institutions.
OST "Sterilization and Disinfection of Medical Devices" No. 42-21-2-85 is also one of the main documents regulating the standard for processing instrumentation. It is he who guides all medical institutions in their work.
In addition, there is a large number of guidelines (MU), which treats the disinfection and sterilization of medical devices in terms of the various disinfectants permitted for this purpose. Today, due to the fact that a lot of misinformation has been officially approved. means, the corresponding methodological instructions are also an integral part of the documents on which the work of the health care facility is based. Today, the standard for processing instrumentation consists of three sequential stages - disinfection, PSO and sterilization of medical devices.
The disinfection and sterilization mode is a set of measures that prevent the penetration of the pathogen into the macroorganism (human). First there is disinfection, then pre-sterilization treatment and sterilization.
Disinfection - destruction of microorganisms on objects of the external environment. After contact with a sick person, the caregiver must protect himself and those around him from bacteria, germs, viruses, and other pathogens. Disinfection of premises, rooms, materials is carried out, as well as instruments, dishes and other devices are sterilized.
The main factor in preventing an epidemic of any serious disease is sterility. Within the framework of such a program, there is a control over the state of health of citizens, the implementation of medical care in compliance with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics.
There are different methods of treatment and disinfection. Focal and prophylactic disinfection is carried out. The first is necessary when the source of the disease is established. It includes ongoing and final activities in the outbreak.
Nowadays, the use of chemicals is widespread in many types of production and fields of scientific activity. Because of this, the health of people living in the city suffers from poor ecology, especially when it comes to industrial centers.
The main sources of chemical waste are:
Technological processes taking place in such institutions are always fraught with the release of a large amount of chemical waste that pollutes the environment.
Unfortunately, such enterprises do not always comply with the requirements and rules for the processing and disposal of chemicals. Combustible mixtures can be discharged into the soil or disposed of in any other incorrect way. Polymers and chlorine-containing reagents are incinerated with industrial or household waste. Water-soluble waste is often disposed of via sewers. Such an irresponsible approach to the disposal of hazardous substances used in production leads to accidents that entail problems with the law.
Recycling and disposal methods depend on the hazard class of the chemical waste. Some compounds are decontaminated and reused.
The main methods of chemical waste disposal include:
Not all waste can be recycled. Some toxic waste requires disposal. Before that, it is disinfected.
Poisonous wastes of chemical production are divided into the following groups depending on the level of danger.