Extraction, properties and applications of palladium

What plastic can you recycle yourself?

All plastics are based on polymers (compounds with high molecular weight and consisting of monomers). Recyclability of plastics depends on the type of raw material from which the plastic product is made. Today there are many types of plastic, which, however, can be grouped into two large groups:

  • Thermoplastic. Approximately 80% of plastic products are made from this material. Includes types: HDPE, LDPE, PET, PP, PS, PVC, etc.
  • Thermosetting plastic. Presented by polyurethane, epoxy, phenolic resins, etc.

It is impossible to recycle the second type of plastics at home, because. thermosetting plastic does not lend itself to re-melting (in some cases, in factories, it is shredded and used as a filler). Thermoplastics, on the other hand, melt when heated without losing their initial properties and, when cooled, regain their original shape. That is why “at home” it is possible to process only thermoplastic plastics with the help of special, but “simple” equipment and to obtain new useful products and materials from such plastic waste. The most common recyclable raw materials are PET bottles and other plastic containers.

Each plastic is unique in its own way, from structure to disposal. On our website, exhaustive articles have been written about each type of plastic as a waste, you can read them, which can be read using the following links: low-pressure polyethylene, high-pressure polyethylene, plastic film, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polycarbonate.

To understand what kind of plastic a product is made of, you need to pay attention to the markings on its surface (often on the bottom). It has the shape of a triangle, inside which there is a number corresponding to the type of polymer. Also, under the triangle, they put the letter designation of the type of plastic. We recommend reading an interesting article about the labeling of all types of packaging with recycling signs.

Making a grid

I took what was in the garden, you can take any grate. We will cut off everything to size, so that there is nothing superfluous, along the internal grooves that we made in advance. Well, the grille fits perfectly, but so far it is not fixed by anything, so I will fasten it with the same self-tapping screws. Four is enough. There is no need for special strength, and in the future it is not necessary to remove the grille, you do not need to make a super mount. Fine. Everything is attached. You can move on to the next stage. You need to make a frame for the plastic on top. There is a perfect piece of chipboard, just cut it in half and the frames are ready.

Now you need to cut a hole in each frame from above. Let's draw a square without exact measurements. Cut with a circular saw or jigsaw. The frame is ready.

Let's make the second one using the first frame as a template.

Now let's fasten the frames with bolts, having pre-drilled a hole.

How to recycle plastic bottles in a non-industrial environment and what can be produced from them for organizing a business, as well as useful tips

To dispose of the material, you do not need to draw up special documents. It should be borne in mind that during pyrolysis and traditional combustion, the substance releases carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, soot, phosgene, hydrocyanic acid and hydrogen bromide into the atmosphere.

Why is it necessary to recycle Styrofoam?

Polyfoam is an extremely inexpensive material, which makes it difficult to find the points of its reception. In Russia, at the moment, the practice of receiving this material is rarely used. Today, the problem of processing expanded polystyrene is acute, since its waste occupies vast areas of the earth, which could be used with greater benefit.

There are other factors that “scream” that the disposal of foam is necessary, despite the fact that it and its derivatives are conditionally safe for nature. They are not affected by ultraviolet rays, they are not exposed to oxygen, they do not interact at a chemical level with neighboring debris. However, it is enough for a fire to happen, and tons of hazardous substances will go into the atmosphere.

Important: During a fire in Perm in 2009 in the Lame Horse club, a foam ceiling caught fire. The cause of death of 22.7% of the dead (156 people) was acute poisoning with a complex of dangerous toxic substances.

Lame Horse's experience has shown that giant foam waste deposits are a ticking time bomb.

How to Dispose of Styrofoam at Home

The massive placement of used foam in landfills is not only environmentally dangerous, but also creates practical problems for its employees - the material takes up a lot of space in terms of volume. Disposing of Styrofoam by incineration at home or directly in a landfill is prohibited - it is dangerous and creates new waste.

Thermal destruction should be carried out by organizations with an appropriate license for professional disposal activities and possessing suitable equipment.

A small amount of waste can be dissolved in acetone - you get a toxic mixture that resembles glue in consistency and properties. Most types of foam waste dissolve well. Alcohol and other flammable liquids are not suitable for disposal.

Recycling plastic bottles as a home business, DIY equipment and manufacturing successful products as a home business.

Pure palladium is rarely found in nature. It is usually mined from nickel and other ores. To obtain a pure material, palladium is refined using hydrochloric acid and oxygen. Industrial technologies for the extraction of material require the use of hazardous chemical reagents, therefore, such methods cannot be used at home.

Why do you need palladium

At home, palladium refining is carried out in order to:

  • obtaining a pure material used as a catalyst;
  • subsequent resale of precious metal.

Basically, they pursue the latter goal, since the metal is constantly becoming more expensive and, if there is a sufficient amount of initial components, its sale can bring substantial profit. So, the cost of a gram of palladium today is estimated at over 1,000 rubles.

The material is most often obtained from radio parts and components that make up modern electronics. In such products, the metal is found in the composition of platinum, silver, gold and other alloys. Less often it was used in its pure form.

It is important to note that material can be sold only at a specialized point for the purchase of precious metals, which has an appropriate license.

Palladium is an expensive metal used as one of the main components of modern electronics. Basically, it is mined for subsequent resale.

Where Star Metal Is 'Found'

Our current hero is a rarity. Data on palladium reserves differ: some analysts say that it is 2-3 times more than gold, others are sure that the mineral is found in nature 20 times less often than gold.

Palladium (solid solution) formations in native platinum are frequent in nature. The silver metal is found in the form of grains in platinum placers.

Palladium-bearing ore minerals:

  • kotulskite;
  • maichenerite;
  • merenskyite;
  • atokite;
  • zvyagintsevite ...

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