Choosing between primary and secondary polyethylene film

General disposal rules

Any type of weapon (hunting rifle, traumatic or gas pistol) can be disposed of in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, or rather in the department of licensing and permitting activities. When making such a procedure, you should contact the department in which the permit was issued. To receive a document for recycling, you need to write a statement and attach to it photocopies of papers permitting the carrying of a pistol.

All subsequent actions are performed by police officers. They draw up the documentation, and after the completion of the process, the tool is sent to storage.

When a certain number of tools are collected at the storage site, then they are melted down or sent to a special landfill, where they are sawn.

How and where are weapons accepted?

The process of accepting guns takes place at the police station. After writing an application (there is a sample for recycling in every police station), an acceptance certificate is drawn up. In this act, data on the firearm are recorded, namely the model and type, the year when it was manufactured and the completeness.

After that, the police station officer compares the data of the tool with those put forward by law enforcement agencies. A check is made whether what was recorded in the documents really corresponds to the facts. Therefore, before the disposal process, it is recommended that everything be checked thoroughly in order to avoid problems in the future.

If the package is not complete, you should fill out a special form and indicate the reasons why this happened, and what exactly is missing. And you will need to hand over all the cartridges that were left with the owner of the weapon at the time of disposal.

Is there an alternative to police departments?

In addition to licensing authorities, you can hand over weapons to second-hand shops that specialize in this. But in this case, the parties will have to draw up the transaction through the police authority that issued the permission to the owner.

An urgent question is whether it is possible to hand over weapons for disposal through State Services. Through this web resource, you can send documents along with the application. But you still have to take it directly through the licensing and permitting department. Therefore, in order to avoid misunderstandings, it is recommended to immediately contact the police.

How we tried to hand over the found cartridges, but it ended in a criminal case

Dangerous batteries for the environment

The contents of food sources include elements that, when released into soil and water, have a negative impact on nature and humans. The main composition includes combinations of metals, each of which is hazardous to the environment. Disposal along with household waste has a number of risks:

  • fire hazard;
  • harmful fumes;
  • decomposition of elements.

Each of the negative factors leads to environmental poisoning, which is transmitted to humans through plants and drinking water.

People have risks of the following diseases: skeletal deformities, dysfunction of the lungs, kidneys, tumors, damage to the skin and mucous membranes, malfunction of the circulatory system.

How many batteries are used in Russia?

In Russia, according to the Ministry of Natural Resources, about 400 thousand tons of waste of extremely hazardous and highly hazardous classes are generated annually. This number also includes batteries - they are classified as hazard class II. According to the authorities, only 1.5% of all hazardous waste is decontaminated and disposed of by operators with the necessary licenses.

According to a study by Discovery Research Group, an average of 20 thousand tons of batteries are sold in Russia per year. The company points out that consumption in 2014-2017 decreased slightly, but in total we are talking about seven batteries per person. Approximately the same statistics are followed at Duracell and at enterprises that recycle batteries.

“According to the declaration of chemical current sources at the customs, about 1 billion pieces are imported into Russia per year, which gives a private consumption of about 8 pieces per person," says Vladimir Matsyuk, General Director of Megapolisresurs Group , which was the first in Russia to engage in deep processing of batteries.

Vyacheslav Kosenko, head of Demercurization LLC, which has been recycling batteries in Novosibirsk since 2021, says that the amount of waste is calculated based on the fact that an average resident uses 6 batteries per year. Thus, according to him, consumption in the Novosibirsk region is more than 330 tons.

Types and markings

Batteries differ in size and shape, voltage, type of electrolyte, chemical reaction. This determines the characteristics of the classification:

  • by shape: parallelepiped, cylinder;
  • by type of electrolyte: carbon-zinc, chloride-zinc, alkali-manganese, mercury, silver, lithium; <
  • by chemical reaction: primary (cannot be charged), secondary (you can).

Procedure for handing over weapons to the police for money. Can I deposit? What if the purchase license is expired or lost? How do I dispose of weapons?

Food waste decomposes rather quickly compared to plastic, metal or glass.

But this is not a reason to ignore the rules for the disposal of this type of waste, because it is the organic matter lying in landfills that provokes the production of landfill gas and various harmful chemical compounds that enter the atmosphere, soil and water.

In this article, read the answers to these questions:

  • what is food waste;
  • does it belong to MSW;
  • which hazard class is assigned to it;
  • < li> what is their decomposition time;
  • and finally why correct disposal is important.

Software Hazard Classes

Criteria for classifying waste as I-V hazard classes in terms of the degree of detrimental impact on the environment, approved by order of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia dated December 4, 2014 N 536:

Waste food products are classified as hazard classes 4 and 5. For the convenience of calculations and control over the transportation and disposal of waste, the necessary data can be found in the federal classification catalog (FCCO).

Russian legislation contains a number of regulatory documents that clearly regulate waste management.

Food waste is mainly generated at:

  • Catering establishments - restaurants, cafes, bars, snack bars, etc. Garbage is generated during cooking, cleaning and sorting vegetables, fruits and other foods. Expired and substandard products.
  • Food industry enterprises. Any of these businesses have defective products that need to be disposed of.
  • Places of life of the person himself.

Ways and Techniques

The annual consumption of polyethylene in Russia is about 1.7 million tons.

A significant proportion of the polymer is used for the manufacture of goods with a limited service life, that is, which are sources of waste.

Therefore, from year to year the issue of utilization of this raw material is becoming more acute.

Polyethylene is of great interest to the recycling business for several reasons:

Further, methods of recycling waste of this polymer and the use of secondary products for the production of products will be considered.

Types of PE waste

Polyethylene is a polymerization product of ethylene (C2H4) - unsaturated gaseous hydrocarbon, the first in the olefin series. The compound practically does not occur in nature, but in industry it is obtained by the methods of cracking of high molecular weight components of oil, dehydrogenation of ethane, and also dehydration of ethyl alcohol.

The polymerization process is the destruction of one of the bonds in the H2C = CH2 molecule and the compound of the -H2C-CH2 monomer into a non-cyclic chain. The process is influenced by temperature, pressure and the type of catalyst used.

Four types of polyethylene are synthesized on an industrial scale, differing in structure and properties:

  • LDPE (high pressure polyethylene) is a transparent and elastic material with low tensile strength. The molecule of a substance has a large number of side branches that do not allow the creation of a crystal structure. At a temperature of 103 - 110 ° C, the polymer becomes liquid and has high fluidity. LDPE is used for the production of packaging materials: films, containers and bags.
  • HDPE (low pressure polyethylene) - more durable and rigid in comparison with LDPE. Polymer filaments have a linear structure with a small number of branches, due to which, at room temperature, about 80% of the substance is in a crystalline state. The melting point is 125 - 132 ° C. HDPE is resistant to most chemicals. Garbage bags, containers for oils, acids, solvents, free-flow pipes are made of it.
  • PSD (medium pressure polyethylene) - a mixture of HDPE and PSD. The material combines the advantages of both types of polymers and is used in the production of films, bags, blown thick-walled containers.
  • LPVD (linear high pressure polyethylene) is an elastic and soft material with high resistance to tears, punctures and other types of destruction. Due to their dyeability, most of these polymers are used for the production of stretch films, laminates and laminates.

Recycling of polyethylene is one of the few recycling technologies that provides a solution to the environmental problem of waste, and can also bring good profit.

The problem of polyethylene pollution of the planet is becoming more serious every year. The use of this material is so widespread that it is found in almost every area of ​​human life. Disposal difficulties and long decomposition times threaten our planet. To solve the problem, technologies for processing and recycling the substance are being developed. This is a great way to get rid of the huge amount of garbage in landfills around major cities and build a profitable production on this basis. The introduction of this method on a global scale is a chance to defeat an ecological catastrophe.

Types of polyethylene waste

Before you get acquainted with the procedure for the disposal of this material in more detail, it is necessary to study its types and scope. Polyethylene is produced as a result of ethylene polymerization and practically does not occur under natural conditions. Enterprises mainly produce the four most common types of this material.

These include the following types of polyethylene:

LDPE is a fragile elastic material. It is used for the manufacture of various types of packaging - bags, films and containers.

LDPE (high density polyethylene)

HDPE has a strong structure and is also resistant to chemicals. This makes it an excellent base for the production of garbage bags, various containers and pipes.

HDPE (low pressure polyethylene)

PSD is a mixture of high and low pressure polyethylene. It is used as a base for films, bags, containers.

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