Osteoarthritis of the knee, or gonarthrosis, is a pathology of a degenerative-dystrophic nature, affecting and deforming all structures of the joint, ultimately leading to the loss of its mobility. 15-30% of the world's population suffers from gonarthrosis, but, despite the development of medicine, statistics are not improving, and the causes of the disease are more and more.
Arthrosis of the knee is a disease of excess weight, heredity, age and lifestyle. The main causes of arthrosis of the knee joint are: injuries, increased stress, obesity, weak ligamentous apparatus, joint disease, stress, metabolic disorders in the body, etc.
It mainly affects the elderly, especially obese women over 40 years of age. The disease provokes excessive stress on the knees. After 65 years, when the knee cartilage wears out a lot, including due to hormonal changes, gonarthrosis is observed to varying degrees in 65–85% of people.
Congenital defects of the knee joint are also possible, leading to disease at an early age, for example, lack of intra-articular lubrication. Any trauma to the knee, including surgery, increases the risk of developing gonarthrosis. The risk group also includes people engaged in monotonous physical labor and athletes.
Deforming arthrosis of the knee joint is a polyetiological disease. This means that there are many reasons for its development. In some cases, when the most dominant cause can be identified, gonarthrosis is called secondary. In the case when a clear cause is not determined, a diagnosis is made of primary or idiopathic (unclear etiology) arthrosis of the knee joint.
Frequently Asked Questions
The following reasons can lead to arthrosis of the knee joint:
- Injuries. These include fractures, dislocations, and damage to the menisci. It was after trauma develops gonarthrosis at a young age. If the knee joint is damaged, it becomes impossible to perform flexion-extension movements. Treatment of the injury in this case involves the temporary fixation of the limb, which leads to a deterioration in blood circulation. This is the reason for the development of post-traumatic arthrosis of the knee joint.
- Menisci are of particular importance. Their damage provokes "looping" of the knee. If a patient's meniscus is removed, then in 9 out of 10 cases this leads to arthrosis of the knee joint.
- Increased loads. Sports activities should be carried out taking into account the age of the patient. Very often people in old age tend to train as actively as in their youth. In most cases, this is a direct path to injury: fractures, sprains. Sometimes microtrauma appears. They are not felt, but they cause serious damage to the joints. Therefore, playing sports after 40 should mean moderate stress.
In old age, the joints cannot cope with the load, which was easily tolerated in youth, because the cartilage tissue wears out over time, becomes thinner. For this reason, during sports, all movements should be smooth. The greatest damage to the knee joints is caused by running on the asphalt and squatting. These exercises should be replaced with other types of physical activity.