Not everyone can afford furniture made of solid natural wood. An alternative option are interior items made of veneer - a material similar in appearance to wood. For the production of such products, plywood, MDF or chipboard sheets, covered with veneer, are used, which are glued to the base, creating an imitation of natural wood. From this article, you will learn what furniture veneer is, what types of it exist, how to choose and properly care for it.
The word veneer comes from the German - Spon, which means sliver, lining. Veneer is a natural natural material, which is a thin sheet made of natural wood of various species. Depending on the production method, veneer is called peeled veneer (made on special peeling machines), sliced or sawn veneer.
Veneer is a natural material that is a thin sheet made of natural wood of various species
Rotary cut veneer (thickness 0.1 - 10 mm) is the most widespread, cheapest and most affordable type of veneer for the consumer. Manufactured on peeling machines. For the production of rotary cut veneer, mainly wood species such as alder, birch, pine, and oak are used. The technology of its manufacture is simple - rounded short logs - the blocks are cut in a spiral, forming thin shavings - veneer of a given thickness.
Sawn veneer (thickness from 1 to 10 mm), made on veneer saws or horizontal saw frames. It is made from coniferous wood: fir, cedar, spruce. This veneer is of a particularly high quality and can be used, in particular, for the production of violin decks and other stringed musical instruments. Sawed veneer is a rather expensive material, since during its manufacture a large amount of wood is spent on sawdust.
Veneering - gluing veneer on a stable base (a panel made of tamburat, MDF, chipboard, plywood, etc.).
Sliced veneer (thickness from 0.2 to 5 mm) is made on veneer planing machines. Such veneer is produced mainly from valuable wood species, which has a beautiful texture. These are oak, beech, acacia, walnut, mahogany, Karelian birch, ash, elm, yew and others. For different types of wood, a different direction of planing is chosen, depending on the showiness of the natural wood pattern. The result is tangential, radial-tangential, tangential-face and radial veneer.
The first examples of modern veneer appeared in ancient times. True, historians who are well acquainted with this topic cannot answer unequivocally where they first learned to make this material. It was found during excavations of settlements in Ancient Rome and Ancient Egypt. Scientists admired the beauty of the material made by the craftsmen of that time. Specialists were especially struck by the fact that at a time when there was no special equipment, people responsibly approached the production of veneer and appreciated the raw material - natural wood. The result was materials that excelled in color and shape.
For a long time, this material has been made by hand. The process of its creation was quite lengthy and required a lot of labor. Using a conventional saw, carpentry craftsmen cut the logs in such a way as to obtain sheets of minimum thickness.
All door hinges, regardless of their type, have the following requirements:
It is worth noting that a defect during manufacture could also cause many problems. Therefore, you should pay attention exclusively to products from well-known manufacturers.
Hinges for aluminum doors differ not only structurally, but also have different quality characteristics, when choosing hinges for your doors, it is important to take them into account and choose the right system that can withstand the load that you put on it.
The main indicator of product quality is its reliability and fastening in the profile. That is why you should not buy cheap designs of unknown brands. Most likely they will not last long.
The modern approach in the door manufacturing industry has led to the fact that a large number of plastic and aluminum doors can be found on the market. As a rule, the aluminum version is installed in shops or other public places.
Depending on the type of door leaf profile, the following types of fittings can be distinguished:
All of them can be fixed in different ways, made of different metal alloys.
Each type of door hinge can be characterized by:
The design of PVC window blocks is significantly different from that of wood. For the convenience of mass production of the company, developers use a modular approach, which allows you to assemble finished products like a designer. Let's consider the main elements of plastic glazing:
During the installation work, special profiles are also used for the correct connection of block parts, panels that form slopes (both external and internal). Some of the abutments are closed with strips or decorative strips. The presence or absence of these parts largely depends on the design of the windows of a particular manufacturer and the installation features.
Windows with a pivot opening mechanism are most common. The doors in them open in the same way as on Soviet wooden frames. If necessary, there is a support (frame) frame between the leaves. Usually, the windows open inward, which provides ease of maintenance: you can wipe the frame and glass from the inside and outside. But the design has its own drawback - it takes a lot of space and an empty window sill to open, otherwise it will not work to ventilate the room. Such systems are suitable not only for windows in living rooms, but also for swing glazing of balconies.
The profile system is considered to be the basis of plastic windows. In fact, the profile is a hollow PVC bar equipped with galvanized metal reinforcement for rigidity. To provide the required thermal insulation and strength characteristics, the internal cavity of the profile is divided into a corresponding number of compartments (chambers). The more of them, the more resistant the structure to deformations and the higher the overall energy efficiency of the window unit.
According to the wall thickness, there are three classes of profile systems - "A", "B" and "C":
Depending on the place of use, the following profile types are distinguished:
Important! Both in the frame and in the sash profile, special grooves are provided for the installation of rubber seals, which allows them to be replaced in case of destruction or loss of elasticity.
Penofol can be mounted without using other materials. This is due to the rich protective functions of the insulation. The hydrophobic properties of the material make it possible not to lay a moisture-proof layer under it when carrying out work on the insulation of the balcony.
The main loss of heat in the cold season occurs through the windows. The issue of insulation and heating of a glazed balcony must be approached in a comprehensive manner. On the one hand, prevent the cold from entering, on the other, prevent the heat from escaping. And also consider an additional heating system if the loggia or balcony will be used in the cold months for a long stay.
There are two options for panoramic glazing:
The first option is used on balconies and is the most problematic in terms of insulation. This is due to the fact that in such a structure there are fewer walls that are easier to insulate. And also it is necessary to take into account whether the balcony slab can withstand the weight of the window profiles with insulation.
For insulation of the loggia, you can safely use warm, but heavy PVC profiles. The weight of the structure does not matter - the slabs have a high bearing capacity. The loggia is built into the facade of the house and only one side of it remains open. The balcony is more open and less warm due to the design.
It is important to choose high-quality materials to insulate a panoramic balcony. Multi-chamber double-glazed windows with low emission properties (low heat transfer) are recommended
It is better to use products from trusted brands:
Warm double-glazed windows are an important condition for insulating a balcony with panoramic glazing. If you neglect it, you will not be able to maintain a comfortable temperature in this room
Even when installing underfloor heating systems or using electric heaters, heat will not be trapped.
Many people who have installed metal-plastic windows in their homes want to protect their homes from exposure to ultraviolet rays. This can be done in several ways. There is a technology for the production of special glasses, on which a special layer is sprayed. In composition with other glasses in a glass unit, they form a protective layer that does not transmit ultraviolet light into the room. The use of such glasses is more expensive than the use of conventional ones. The way out of this situation was the use of so-called light filters for windows. They are a more modern and ergonomic replacement for conventional curtains, although they are most often made from the same materials. They are distinguished by the complete absence of drapery and special fasteners.
This construction is divided into three types:
An open structure is a sheet of fabric that is attached to the ceiling or wall just in front of the window opening. It is easy to install and convenient to operate.
The cassette design is specially designed for plastic windows. It consists of a decorative box with a filter roll located in it. With this type of light filter, the side guides tightly cover the entire window surface, as a result of which light does not penetrate into the room.
With the help of special strings, the dormer structure is securely fixed on dormer and inclined types of windows.
The main advantage of window filters is their versatility and practicality. They are also an independent element and can be used as an additional accessory to the main curtains and curtains, making up a single harmony. In addition, the construction is used only for windows, leaving the sill free.
There are three main types of light filters: