It is very important to insulate the attic, because most of the heat escapes through it. Even if the attic is already insulated, it may still be possible to increase the energy efficiency and strength of the home by sealing the air. Air leaks in the attic can lead to significant heat loss and cause many moisture-related problems. The importance of sealing the air cannot be overemphasized. Read this entire chapter if you are updating your attic for helpful tips and other important information.
Regardless of the type of attic or ceiling in your home, there are a number of things to learn before starting work. Carefully reviewing the following features will help you develop your upgrade strategy.
Most homes with accessible lofts have an interior skylight, although exterior roofs or wall entrances are not uncommon. The hatch must be large enough for you to load materials. If not, or if there is no access, you can cut a hole in the ceiling in an inconspicuous place, such as a closet. Externally mounted gable-ended entrances provide one less opening that will need to be sealed, allowing easy access for firefighters in the event of a fire.
Check the roof area for obstructions and ease of movement. Vertical gaps less than 1 m (39 inches) will prevent you from moving freely. Attics or roofs without workspace are discussed later in this chapter in Section 5. Cramped Attics, Cathedral Ceilings, and Flat Roofs.
In addition to checking for structural problems, check the condition of the roof frame, cladding, trim, ceiling and cladding for signs of moisture problems such as leaks, stains, mildew, flaking or rot. Unaddressed moisture problems will reduce the effectiveness of the insulation and can lead to structural damage such as wood rot or chipped rafters. Mold or rot are sure signs of a serious condensation problem. Determine the cause and correct it before adding insulation.
Moisture can come from outside due to failure of the roof or waterproofing. Typical areas of concern include poor highlighting on the thigh, hollow, or chimney, and ice dam leaks. Pay particular attention to water spots on the underside of the sheathing or along the rafters.
Moisture can also come from the home and be carried away to the attic in the form of water vapor when air leaks. Typical problem areas arise around bathroom and kitchen vents that extend through the ceiling, around plumbing and chimneys, and around potted wiring and lighting passages. An indication of an air leak is a discoloration of the insulation, so feel free to look under the existing insulation to find air leaks.
Check the attic during or immediately after a cold snap for condensation accumulation, which manifests itself as frost in cold climates. Some frost build-up should be expected, but if the build-up is particularly severe (10 mm [2 in] or more), ensure that ventilation is present and not blocked by insulation. Checking your attic during or immediately after a rainstorm can help determine if moisture problems are caused by internal or external sources.
Examine existing insulation for type, condition (dry, wet, compact, etc.), Medium Depth and Coverage. If it has been damaged or contaminated with mold or vermin, remove it. However, do not disturb the vermiculite insulation (see Section 1, Health and Safety Issues).
If the insulation is wet, do not cover it until the moisture source has been removed and the insulation is dry. If the insulation dries, it can probably be left in place. Generally, there is no problem using two types of insulation. Check the depth of the insulation to determine its insulating properties. Compare this to the recommended insulation values in Section 2., Heat Flux Control.
Ensure that the insulation is evenly distributed and that there is coverage throughout the entire depth, especially around the perimeter of the attic above the wall slabs. In non-insulated rooms, a cold spot forms at the junction of the wall and ceiling, which can lead to moisture and mold.
A small pond on the site brings a special charm to the garden design.
Decorated with plants, natural stones and lighting, it creates a mysterious atmosphere and gives the surrounding landscape a more original look.
How to make a pond with your own hands? In fact, this is a rather complicated and responsible process. But, if we take an old cast-iron bath as a basis, then any of us can create such an artificial reservoir.
Installing a pond from an old bathtub doesn't take much time. In addition, to create it, you will need the simplest and most affordable materials, and further care for the mini pond is very easy. You can decorate the reservoir with a variety of plants and stones, as well as launch fish there.
The edges of the tub can be hidden under plants, natural stone, or painted dark.
To make a bath pond in the country, you will need:
With the onset of winter, many young guys have a desire to have some fun, that is, "party sideways" in a rear-wheel drive car around the mall. In most cases, these young people own inexpensive front-wheel-drive cars, so it's not particularly easy to “distribute” them. Therefore, they have to buy domestic rear-wheel drive Zhiguli.
Quiet people can also think about buying an old VAZ, for example, those who have recently received a license and want to learn how to drive a car that is not too bad to be scratched or slightly wrinkled.
There are many more reasons why people have to buy their own cars. Therefore, this article tells why, when considering buying some old VAZ, it is worth making a choice in the direction of the VAZ-2106.
Let's start with the design. The exterior of the car has a lot of chrome parts that make it a little unique among other Lada, because of this, young people who want to learn how to drive often choose exactly 2106 from all available classics.
In some configurations, in the interior of this car, you can find head restraints on the driver's and front passenger seats and wood-like inserts in the front panel, not to mention the velor interior, which is found on almost all models. All this makes driving a car more comfortable, due to which novice drivers will feel more confident on the road.
We can also say that regarding such models as VAZ-2104, -2105, -2107, the plastic in the cabin 2106 squeaks and rattles less and the sound insulation is made better, which will also give more comfort to the driver.
In terms of ergonomics, the VAZ-2106 car tried to keep up with its western competitors. An emergency signal button was provided in the car, which was a rarity for Soviet cars.
Also, the driver could change the brightness of the dashboard backlight using a special button, and wash the windshield using a lever, which was located under the steering wheel. In addition, an indicator appeared in the cabin, indicating the level of the brake fluid. All this stuffing helps to drive the car today.
If we compare the VAZ-2106 with its main competitor, that is, with the VAZ-2107, it can be noted that the “six” approached the issue of safety with greater responsibility. In her, the bars of rigidity, in contrast to the "seven", were installed in the doors, which gave her the opportunity to achieve good performance in crash tests.
Why does the Vaz-2107 stove not heat up
And again the weather threatens with cold weather. For those who are not all right with the heater, the most important question was how to make the “stove” warm? First of all, we will determine the cause of the malfunction. The culprit may be a subcooled engine, an “airy” cooling system, or a malfunction of the heater itself. If the stove fan does not spin - the wiring is faulty - see here.
Signs - temperature on the gauge in the white zone, the engine takes a long time to warm up. Normal warming up at a temperature of -20 looks like this: we start the engine, in 8-10 minutes at idle the engine should warm up to 40-50 degrees (the very beginning of the white sector of the temperature indicator scale). If the temperature rises higher, good, less is bad. The thermostat is defective. Further, we go in 1-2 gear, and in 5-8 minutes the temperature rises to 80 (the border of the white and green zones). The replacement thermostat has not warmed up to 80! Temporarily, you can do with the insulation of the radiator with cardboard or something else. But do not forget that if the engine is given a load (stuck and skidding), it may boil. Therefore, the cardboard should be easily and quickly pulled out.
First of all, we check the level of antifreeze in the expansion tank, the serviceability of the radiator plug. If the antifreeze is diluted with water, it is bad, it will harden, it must be replaced. If the radiator plug is faulty, air will remain in the system, and this will lead to poor circulation and cold in the cabin. We buy and put a new plug, add antifreeze and the shortage disappears.
The air lock may remain even after the repair of the cooling system. Air is removed by driving the car, preheated to 80 gr. engine, up a hill to raise the front. Then, having removed the radiator plug, the engine is driven at 2000 - 3000 rpm for several minutes. After the air is released, it remains only to top up the antifreeze and close the radiator cap.
Blue - controls the air supply. Red - antifreeze supply tap. They must be open (to the right as far as it will go). Sometimes the faucet turns sour. Find it under the glove compartment and check - it should open all the way, you can help with your hand, simultaneously with the lever. Only, work carefully, the parts are delicate, fragile, you can break. It is convenient to move the lever with your left hand, and turn the tap with your right hand.
Heater valve VAZ 2107 in open position
Heater valve in closed position
We check the operation of the air damper with the fan on. The lever to the right from the stove blows strongly, to the left - much weaker. If there is no difference, the cable has come off badly, the stove will have to be removed.
Plastic and glass surround us everywhere and very often bottles of these materials accumulate in large quantities and litter balconies, garages, sheds and verandas. You can just dump everything, but it is better to try using them as material for creative ideas.
Even inexperienced craftsmen can create an original lamp with their own hands from plastic or glass bottles. It is enough to be inspired by the presented ideas and arm yourself with our tips and tricks.
Beautiful and unusual nightlights can be made from wine bottles, which can have the most bizarre shapes. The lighting features will depend on the color of the glass. Bottled lamps with original design fit perfectly into a modern interior.
To make a cozy night light, you will need one bottle, simple short garlands, masking tape and a drill with a special drill for tiles and glass. It is better to match the color of the lights on the garland to the color of the bottle glass. For example, for dark brown glass containers, light bulbs with yellow light (warm lighting) are suitable, and a dark blue bottle will be combined with blue or white light from bulbs (cold lighting).
When all the materials are prepared, you can start working. We take a clean, dry bottle and wrap its lower part and bottom with masking tape in several layers. Next, mark the place of the hole for the wire on the wall or bottom and drill with a wet drill at medium speed, holding the drill straight and firmly fixing it. If you follow all the recommendations described, then the glass will not break. When the hole is ready, it should be sanded with sandpaper.
The next stage is the design of the bottle walls. The most affordable option is to paint patterns with translucent stained glass paints. For these purposes, you can use a homemade stencil. With sufficient skill and developed imagination, you can depict something abstract. It should be noted that such a table lamp will look great even without additional decoration.
The lights of the garland are dipped one by one into the bottle through the hole, leaving the necessary part of the wire with a plug. The luminaire is supposed to be oriented vertically with the neck up.
To make a lamp, you can use not only wine bottles, but also curly ones for cognac and liqueur or miniature beer bottles.