1 - cover; 2 - ball bearing; 3 - retaining ring; 4 - hub bearing nut; 5 - protective cap; 6 - hub; 7 - hub bearing; 8 - rotary fist; 9 - front wheel brake disc; 10 - brake shield; 11 - nut; 12 - eccentric (adjusting) bolt; 13 - rotary lever; 14 - front suspension spring; 15 - shock absorber rod; 16 - upper spring cup; 17 - the upper support of the shock absorber; 18 - shock absorber rod nut; 19 - bearing of the upper support of the shock absorber strut; 20 - spring gasket; 21 - buffer of compression of the front suspension; 22 - protective casing; 23 - telescopic rack; 24 - front wheel drive shaft; 25 - bracket for fastening the cushion of the anti-roll bar; 26 - stretching the front suspension; 27 - bar of the anti-roll bar; 28 - anti-roll bar; 29 - front suspension arm
Lada Kalina independent front suspension on MacPherson struts. This suspension is the most common in the automotive world for its price and acceptable characteristics for this price. Previously, this suspension was used in Lada, for example, in Lada Samara, but it was much poorer in terms of McPherson equipment, although it was 90% similar to it.
So, the Lada Kalina suspension consists of the following components:
On a Lada Kalina car, the struts can be equipped with conical or barrel springs. It all depends on what equipment the car has. The lower coil of the spring abuts against the support cup, which is tightly welded to the rack. The upper turn rests against the cup, which is attached to the shock absorber rod.
The stem is attached to the upper support bearing, which in turn is bolted to the body with three studs. Thanks to the bearing, the shock absorber rod rotates inside the support. This allows you to turn the wheels of the car. A boot must be installed on the shock absorber rod, which protects the inner surface of the element from contamination.
In total, there are four main reasons why noises and squeaks can annoy the car owner Lada Kalina, and three of them can be eliminated on their own and returned to a safe state.
The desire to get a finished device as compact as possible has led to the emergence of various microcircuits, inside which there are hundreds, thousands and millions of individual electronic elements. Therefore, almost any electronic device contains a microcircuit, the standard supply value of which is 3.3 V or 5 V. Auxiliary elements can be powered from 9 V to 12 V DC. However, we know very well that the socket has an alternating voltage of 220 V and a frequency of 50 Hz. If it is applied directly to a microcircuit or some other low-voltage element, then they will instantly fail.
From here it becomes clear that the main task of the network power supply unit (PSU) is to reduce the voltage value to an acceptable level, as well as to convert (rectify) it from alternating to constant. In addition, its level must remain constant regardless of fluctuations in the input (at the outlet). Otherwise, the device will become unstable. Consequently, another most important function of the power supply is to stabilize the voltage level.
In general, the power supply structure consists of a transformer, rectifier, filter and stabilizer.
In addition to the main units, a number of auxiliary ones are also used, for example, indicator LEDs, which signal the presence of the supplied voltage. And if the power supply unit provides for its adjustment, then naturally there will be a voltmeter, and possibly also an ammeter.
In this scheme, a transformer is used to reduce the voltage in a 220 V outlet to the required level, most often 5 V, 9 V, 12 V or 15 V. At the same time, high-voltage and low-voltage circuits are galvanically isolated. Therefore, in any emergency situations, the voltage on the electronic device will not exceed the value of the secondary winding. Also, galvanic isolation increases the safety of the operating personnel. In case of touching the device, a person will not fall under the high potential of 220 V.
The design of the transformer is quite simple. It consists of a core that acts as a magnetic circuit, which is made of thin, highly conductive magnetic flux plates, separated by a dielectric, which is a non-conductive varnish.
At least two windings are wound on the core rod. One primary (also called network) - 220 V is supplied to it, and the second - secondary - reduced voltage is removed from it.
The principle of operation of the transformer is as follows. If voltage is applied to the mains winding, then, since it is closed, alternating current will begin to flow in it. Around this current, an alternating magnetic field arises, which is collected in the core and flows through it in the form of a magnetic flux. Since there is another winding on the core - a secondary one, then under the action of an alternating magnetic flux, an electromotive force (EMF) will be seen in it. When this winding is closed to the load, an alternating current will flow through it.
Radio amateurs in their practice most often use two types of transformers, which mainly differ in the type of core - armored and toroidal. The latter is more convenient to use in that it is quite easy to wind the required number of turns on it, thereby obtaining the required secondary voltage, which is directly proportional to the number of turns.
The main for us are two parameters of the transformer - voltage and current of the secondary winding. We will take the current value equal to 1 A, since we will take zener diodes for the same value
We continue to assemble the power supply unit with our own hands. And the next ordinal element in the circuit is a diode bridge, it is also a semiconductor or diode rectifier. It is designed to convert the alternating voltage of the secondary winding of the transformer into a constant one, or, more precisely, into a rectified pulsating one. This is where the name "rectifier" comes from.
The unit that prepares the air-fuel mixture and supplies it to the power unit is the most important component of all cars of the classic series (only export models were equipped with injection devices) and some other models produced at the Volzhsky plant. Despite the fact that modern vehicles are no longer equipped with carburetor engines, a large number of cars with such engines still serve their owners faithfully. Therefore, it is important to know what a VAZ 2107 carburetor is, to have an understanding of its structure and maintenance.
The 2107 carburetor is controlled in the same way as any other carburetor. The adjustment is carried out on the basis of standard calibration data containing all the parameters, without which it is impossible to make high-quality adjustment and adjustment of the device. Experts advise these procedures to be performed at least once a year (some professionals believe that adjustment and tuning should be carried out every six months if the car is operated intensively enough).
Qualified carburetor service consists of the following steps:
After that, you can proceed directly to the adjustment of all the above nodes.
The power supply system of the VAZ 2107 is practically no different from all rear-wheel drive VAZ vehicles. The only exception is the carburetor, which has been redesigned and supplemented with new, more advanced systems, which we will talk about today. In fact, it remains the same 1967 Weber that was installed on the Fiat 124.
Before talking about design changes, let's get acquainted with the carburetor device. We have shown its scheme in the photo, you can understand it if you wish, and a detailed and detailed description of the device and the principle of operation is interesting only to specialists, therefore we will focus only on the basic concepts regarding the device of the VAZ 2107 carburetor. / P>
Now let's briefly consider the features of each of the presented systems in order to understand how the device works in general.
The main working body of this device is the air damper, which regulates the air supply to the carburetor. The damper is located only on the primary chamber and is set in motion by a cable, controlled from the passenger compartment by a mechanical method. The suction is the starting device.
What is it for? When starting the engine, the carburetor may not always provide the correct proportion of air and gasoline to start. This is due to many factors, but in order not to despair for a long time, we will give a simple example. In the cold season, the volatility of the fuel is significantly reduced, and when starting the engine requires an increased content of gasoline in the mixture, the so-called. rich mixture. By closing the air damper with the suction handle, we thereby increase the amount of gasoline in the mixture, enrich the mixture.