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It's just that most often it turns out in Chernomyrdin style: "We wanted the best, but it turned out as always."

San Martin entered Lima with fanfare in July 1821, but a week later he realized that he had received an extra 60 thousand mouths that somehow needed to be fed, as well as his own army and navy Cochrane. And two weeks later, in a letter to O'Higgins, San Martin contritely called Lima "a bankrupt city." Shortly before the capitulation of Lima, San Martín and de la Serna signed a special agreement, according to which neither side was to interfere with the supply of 3,000 fanega (fanega, capacity of 55 liters) of wheat and some rice, but de la Serna counted that the city needs 4,000 phanegs of wheat to avoid food shortages. The capital was on the verge of starvation. 3. ounces of bread cost 1 real, the same as "three little sweet potatoes", one of the officers of San Martin wrote that "bought two potatoes the size of an egg for half a real", a loaf of bread cost 1 peso. In addition, silver almost disappeared from circulation, since Callao remained Spanish and no foreign trade was foreseen. Inflation started. But Lima, according to San Martin, was supposed to feed both itself and the rebel army, and provide replenishment to the troops of the Independents. It is clear that the enthusiasm of the masses did not endure the test of high prices and lack of food, and within a month the population of Lima clearly expressed their sympathy for the royalists. In this situation, San Martin did not find anything better than to adopt the "Robin Hood principle" - to rob the rich and give everything to the poor. According to the 1820 census, there were 1,463 large owners in Lima - relatively speaking - "directors of factories, newspapers, ships", most of them were Spaniards or royalists, and it was decided to "dispossess them". It is clear that most of them as a result fled to Callao or to the interior regions of Peru, already on August 2, the mayor's office announced that 42 Spanish merchants had left the capital, and with capital that they had withdrawn through foreign traders. In March 1822, the ship "Especulation" arrived in Cadiz, which brought to Spain the former Viceroy Pesuela, the archbishop, two brigadiers, five corregidors, the intendant, the prior, the contador, the director of the tobacco monopoly, one inquisitor, two consuls and twenty-two merchants. all from Lima. San Martin's appointed prefect of Monteagudo began a policy of forced expulsion of the Spaniards from the capital. Three hundred people were sent to Spain on transports "Laura", "Mercurio", "Pacifico" and "Sarah", and their property was confiscated and forced to swim for 500 pesos per head of San Martin, and at sea they were stopped by the Cochrane squadron , who collected from them another 2500 pesos per head. In January 1822, the revolutionary government demanded that all Spaniards who did not accept Peruvian citizenship leave the country, giving half of their property to the Peruvian authorities. Although there are no statistics on loyalists who fled from Peru, Gaspar Rico in 1824 estimated their number for the period 1821-1824 at 12 thousand people, including all who fled, expelled and killed. But the revolutionary government continued to "strike while the iron was hot." A decree followed to confiscate all property belonging to the Spaniards. Captain Basil Hall wrote that by July 1822, "the old Spaniards in Peru were completely ruined." Well, what's the problem? - the reader will ask. The Spaniards plundered Peru for several centuries, now the masses have thrown a cry: "Plunder the loot." And the fact is that these "owners of factories, newspapers, ships" were, firstly, the most economically active and educated part of the population, and secondly, taxes from their enterprises gave the main income to the budget of the capital and the vice-kingdom ... As a result of the expulsion of the capitalists, enterprises stopped, the haciends were ruined, the accumulated money and supplies were stolen and eaten, and by 1822 the revolutionaries had nothing to eat and nothing to buy even simple food with. Roughly speaking, the taxable base collapsed in exactly one year.

Actually, sooner or later, anyone interested in sails comes to the figure of our Sir Thomas, Cochrane. So it turns out that different episodes of his life will be described by me in articles on various resources. this is part one. Battle of the Basque Passages. Sir Thomas lights up literally and figuratively.

Oh yes, his quarrel with Jervis and the court of 1798, and his command of the "Arab", when he fastened gilded candlesticks to the mast at the entrance to Portsmouth, has not yet been described. But nothing, I will close these holes yet)

Gambier, realizing that the attack might well be unsuccessful, was at a loss. He informed the First Lord of the Admiralty, Henry Phipps, Lord Malgrave, that "trying to attack is very dangerous and most likely hopeless." Perhaps Malgrave would have let it go, but some officers - including the famous Eliab Harvey, Nelson's former captain who commanded the Temerer at Trafalgar - said an attack was possible. In addition, the First Lord was under pressure from the Indian Affairs Council, worried about the possible appearance of a French fleet in the West Indies. In this situation, Malgrave decided to summon a man whose courage and ingenuity were not inferior to the sarcasticity and sharpness of language. On March 11, 1809, the 38-gun frigate Imperios entered Plymouth under the command of Thomas Cochrane, a man whose reputation in the Navy was established as the master of the impossible. Back in 1801, Cochrane showed his worth by capturing the 32-gun Spanish frigate El Gamo in the 14-gun Speedy brig. Cochrane was a really brave and resourceful officer, but his career was not easy for him: firstly, he was too sharp on his tongue, and secondly, he was an active opposition figure. rafalgar made bronze statues out of Nelson's captains who became admirals. They literally prayed for, and the admirals themselves became more and more cautious and indecisive. This is how the poet Wordsworth described the situation: “The French could rejoice (which they probably do) knowing the character of Admirals Gambier, Collingwood, Sotheby's, Duckworth and others. However, fortunately, we have several naval officers with outstanding talents, and I sincerely hope that they will soon take up high positions - for example, Cochrane or Commodore Beaver (...) They are some of the most professional sailors, the pride of the country (...) I I believe that these two are very capable officers, and they are quite capable of becoming a worthy replacement for the old idiots in the command. " Before leaving Downs, Cochrane received an audience with the First Lord of the Admiralty, Henry Malgrave, and he informed the captain that he was counting on his aggressiveness and skill. At the same time, Cochrane proposed his plan: to attack the French ships in the parking lot at night with the help of fire-ships. Malgrave agreed with the idea, but did not give power. In other words, the attack should have looked like an initiative of Cochrane himself: if it succeeds - well done, if it fails - it will be his own fault. from the fact that a captain had been appointed commander of the operation, aroused Gambier's furious rage, and the admiral forbade the commanders and sailors subordinate to him to participate in the case.

Cochrane, trying to do something, sent "Ellas" and "Carteria" (as the Greeks renamed the steamer "Perseverance") to the northwest of Morea, in order to try to intercept the Egyptian Ibrahim Pasha there, take him captured, and used as a hostage to negotiate the independence of Greece. The funny thing is that this small detachment managed to intercept the Pasha's ship, the harem of the Egyptian co-ruler was present on it, as well as jewelry, but Ibrahim Pasha himself was not on the ship. As Cochrane bitterly pointed out, "A harem is an excellent thing, but not at all suitable for political bargaining."

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