Programming for the non-programmer



Everyone understands the meaning of the function in one way or another. In a broad sense, it is simply a certain action on something with a certain result. The function of the iron is to smooth out creases in the fabric. The function of the plane is to do roughly the same thing only with a piece of wood. Those who have not completely forgotten about algebra lessons at school also imagine that a function is a kind of mathematical abstraction that allows one to compare one value with some other. It is important to understand here that a function is not an action in isolation. That is, smoothing and smoothing as an action is not a function in the strict sense. The function also has a subject for action and a final result - strictly defined and unambiguous. Even if this is a certain probability, then it has its own strict description - the expected value and error.

An algorithm is, strictly speaking, also a kind of function, whether it be computer, or in the general sense of the word. You can think of an algorithm as a kind of sequential application of a set of functions on input data. The difference between an algorithm and a mathematical function is that the algorithm allows you to simultaneously apply several functions and store separate results for later use. Moreover, sometimes the sequence can have a strict order, and sometimes it can be performed independently of each other - in parallel. If you want it is such an automobile conveyor where the engine, body and chassis are assembled separately and in parallel, but each of these processes has its own strict sequence. And in the end, all three parts are assembled into one - into a car. Algorithms can also receive several results at the same time. For example, the result of planing a board as an algorithm is not only a smooth board, but also shavings.

In programming, the concept of a function is often used in the understanding of an algorithm - broader than a mathematical function or an operator. Therefore, when speaking of a function, programmers usually mean some kind of construct in an algorithmic language, rather than y = f (x). So and further in the text, no matter what it confuses anyone, we will consider both concepts to be identical and use them in an expanded sense - a program in an algorithmic language. When it will be necessary to enter a mathematical definition, this will be specifically discussed.

Arithmetic mean and median

Everything seems elementary, but what did the excelka actually do. The program inside itself has a built-in algorithm for calculating the AVERAGE function. Without getting into the details, there are literally three sub-functions:

I will repeat myself for the last time - this is a real program - a computer algorithm that for now creates "on the fly" and executes an excelka for you. If you suddenly didn't know, then execution can even be disabled if there are a lot of formulas in the book, and there is no need to recalculate them every time the input data changes. Perhaps, in the course of business, you will have to use this simple trick.

Do-it-yourself pool from scrap materials; tires, tubs, concrete rings

Nutritional and energy value:


I found this cake in the internet. I really liked him in the photo. One thing about him saddened me that he was with wine, and this is unacceptable for me. It's too early alcohol for my little sweet tooth. After thinking a little, I replaced the pear juice and wine with pear puree (slightly diluted with water) and lemon juice. It turned out very tasty, but the cake has one drawback - it managed to disappear in one dinner. And I was counting on him for breakfast. I highly recommend giving it a try. P.. I will give the recipe in the original, I will comment on it along the way.

50 g - chopped almonds (or almond flour)

1 bag of vanilla pudding or 40g cornstarch + vanilla sugar

Step by step recipe

For the dough, beat the eggs with sugar into a thick foam.

Sift flour with salt and baking powder, gradually mix with egg mass, add vanilla sugar.

Peel one pear, keeping the "tail".

Peel the rest of the pears, cut in half lengthwise and core. Cut each half into 3 slices. Grease an ovenproof dish with a diameter of 24 cm with butter and sprinkle with flour.

Pour in the dough, place a whole pear in the middle, spread the slices around, lightly sprinkle with ground cinnamon.

A pool made of improvised materials with your own hands - tires, bathtubs, concrete ring Very soon a hot summer will come, when the mercury column of the thermometer goes off scale and so you want to rinse in

Pears for jam - are there any special requirements for the variety

Absolutely all types of fruits are suitable for pear jam, both early and late varieties. The only thing to consider is the consistency of the pulp. To make a homogeneous dessert, it is better to take soft varieties, they quickly and completely boil down. If you need to make jam with pieces of pears, it is better to use hard varieties so that the slices retain their integrity.

As for whether to peel the skin, it all depends on the individual taste. Some people like it when pears with skin crunch a little on their teeth. Others prefer a delicate jam puree made from peeled fruits.

Fully ripe pears boil quickly, but darken slightly during cooking. From hard, semi-ripe fruits, a lighter jam is obtained, but it will take longer to cook.

Cooking description:

Pear jam comes out thick, rich, with a subtle vanilla scent. I use it not only for sweets, but sometimes I experiment and create sauces for different meat dishes and chicken dishes. season of pears I advise you to make such a jam and as a lovely gift to your loved ones. so how to make pear jam? 1. Rinse the pears, remove the stalks and seed pods. Cut off the peel. Of course, you can leave the peel, but I usually cut it off. ... Pass the pears through a meat grinder or chop with a blender until smooth. ... Add sugar to the pear mass and let it brew for an hour. ... After an hour, put a saucepan with pear-sugar gruel over low heat, add a pinch of vanilla and, stirring occasionally, cook until tender. After boiling, you can increase the fire. The main thing is to remember to stir occasionally! The readiness of the jam can be checked as follows: drop the jam on a saucer. If it thickens when it cools, then it’s ready! 5. Set aside the finished jam, let it stand and the foam will dissolve. Then pour into sterilized jars and roll up. Store the pear jam in the same way as the rest of the preparations.


As you know, the pear is a seasonal fruit and it is almost impossible to find it in the markets and in hypermarkets during certain periods of the year. A special "deficit" is observed in winter - at this time, fruits rarely appear on display windows among imported fruits.

As for cooking recipes, don't worry, there are just a lot of them, choose the one that suits your taste.

Diet plum compote without added sugar

If everyone in your family has a different idea of ​​the amount of sugar in compote, then you can roll up the compote without sugar. This concentrate can then be used for different purposes, diluted or added sugar directly to the mug. Give it a try!

Chicken and Pear Salad

Cooking description:

Pears after baking are not necessary at all, this is a matter of taste. Their purpose is to give the chicken its taste, juice and aroma. Calculate the cooking time of the chicken depending on its weight. I will tell you in detail how to cook chicken baked with pears in a step-by-step recipe.



Preheat oven to 200 ° С. gently remove the skin from the meat. Free the meat from the bones. Use the bones to make the broth. Season the prepared fillet with salt and pepper. Heat butter and olive oil in a frying pan, fry the fillets until golden brown, 2 minutes on each side. Transfer the fried fillets to a baking sheet lined with baking paper. Rush finely chop, transfer to a bowl. Add sour cream, grated cheese. Mix well. and put each fillet in 2 tbsp. l. mixture with pears, sprinkle with grated Parmesan cheese and bake in the oven for 15–20 minutes until golden brown.

What could be easier than baking chicken in the oven? It is enough to preheat the oven, ...

At first glance, baked chicken is a simple dish. In fact, it is not so easy to bake ...

Chicken with pear in the oven

Chicken baked with a pear in the oven is a very tasty and satisfying dish. The meat turns out to be juicy, with a spicy, sweetish note. Serve this chicken hot with boiled potatoes or rice. Try it, the combination of chicken and pear will surely appeal to many!

Lazy oatmeal in a jar of yogurt

Healthy eating can be easy and enjoyable. Recently, very often I cook not boiled oatmeal for breakfast, but lazy, in a jar. I like this method better. It is considered more useful because the oatmeal is not heat treated. And yet, it is convenient, fast and simple.

In the evening I collected all the ingredients in a jar and in the morning you and your family are provided with a delicious and healthy breakfast.

Last but not least, you can customize additional ingredients that your family members like.

Today I will show you one of the options for such oatmeal with pear and nuts, and with the aroma of cinnamon! A real autumn breakfast. In my breakfast, I used drinking yogurt with additives, which can be replaced with regular or kefir. Also, the pear can be replaced with apples or quince, or other seasonal fruits or berries.

Long-boiled oatmeal should be the main ingredient - this is important!

Nutritional and energy value:


Put the cereal in the pot. Add milk, salt. Bring to a boil and simmer over low heat, stirring occasionally, for 5-7 minutes.

Peel the pears, cut into 4 pieces. Core and cut into small cubes. Fry over high heat with butter, 2 minutes. Reduce heat, add sugar and cook for another 1-2 minutes.

Arrange the porridge in bowls or plates. Lay out the pears. Add natural yogurt and drizzle with honey. Serve immediately.

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