As you know, due to the ongoing epidemic, repairs are delayed and the launch of the Large Hadron Collider is postponed. Not so long ago, in the mid-2010s, the work of this grandiose particle accelerator, which made it possible in 2012 to detect the Higgs boson and complete the Standard Model, could be compared in scale only with the discovery of gravitational waves. These two events so organically complemented each other and marked both one of the last bricks in the building of Old Physics, and one of the first at the foundation of the New, that one exotic link, connecting these discoveries, remained almost imperceptible. This link is a mysterious strange matter, the possible existence of which was discussed back in the 1980s. The appearance of the smallest particles of such matter (straplets, which we will talk about later) was a serious cause for concern even at the stage of the LHC's construction. In addition, the LIGO collaboration, which first recorded gravitational waves in the collision of two black holes, also discovered events of a different kind: collisions of neutron stars and the collision of a black hole with a neutron star with the absorption of the latter. It was during such collisions that neutron stars were noticeably deformed. This allows us to assume that, in fact, neutron stars are not homogeneous, but have a layered structure, as, however, it was already assumed earlier. The substance inside neutron stars cannot be similar to any material we know from everyday experience. According to the traditional point of view, a neutron star is literally a "stub" from an ordinary star, "during its lifetime" comparable in mass to the Sun. Since such a star should not consist of atoms, but of the most closely adjacent neutrons, it is assumed that this is the most dense substance in the Universe, "a teaspoon of which weighs as much as Mount Everest." But it was precisely the fact that two neutron stars collided with each other that gave a new impetus to the study of strange matter.
The matter we are accustomed to consists of nucleons - atomic nuclei with different masses, depending on the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Protons and neutrons (nucleons) are kept in a compact form due to the strong nuclear interaction. The same interaction, which is preserved on the scale of the atomic nucleus, is responsible for the integrity of the nucleons themselves. Nucleons consist of quarks and gluons - elementary particles that are close in nature to electrons (both quarks and electrons belong to the class of fermions). Nevertheless, in a free form, outside of nucleons, quarks do not occur in the conditions we are accustomed to, and this is a fundamental point. It is impossible to obtain a free quark in the laboratory, just as it is impossible to obtain a magnet with one pole. The phenomenon of an inseparable connection between quarks, illustrated below, is called "confinement" (literally: "confinement" or "confinement").
It is believed that neutron stars consist of only neutrons due to the action of gravity: the flattening atoms lose electrons, then protons turn into neutrons. The result is a star the size of a city (a book by Sergei Popov with a similar subtitle is one of the most interesting Russian-language texts on neutron stars). The first neutron stars to be discovered were pulsars - these are stars that emit periodic pulses in the radio range. Pulsars were first discovered in 1967 and were even mistaken for sources of radio signals of extraterrestrial origin.
But it is also possible that at colossal pressures inside a neutron star, matter continues to change further, and individual quarks, having detached from neutrons, can exist in a free state. Such a substance is called "quark-gluon plasma" or "quark soup". In 2018, droplets of quark-gluon plasma were obtained experimentally for the first time. It is assumed that it could exist in the first milliseconds after the Big Bang, and also that such matter can be formed in collisions of neutron stars.
Let me remind you that the word “collider” comes from the English word “collide” with the meaning “to collide”. Indeed, this particle accelerator creates new particles, resulting from collisions of other elementary particles. The exoticism of these particles and (in principle) the matter formed in the collider is theoretically not limited by anything other than the collision energy (measured in gigaelectronvolts, GeV) - and the properties of this matter can be varied up to unpredictability.
Back in 2008, there was an extensive scientific report called “Review of the safety of LHC collisions”. This paper discusses how particle collisions in a collider differ from interactions of particles in cosmic rays, and, in particular, why macroscopic black holes and strapels should not arise in such an accelerator.
Strapelka is a still undetected object, but so interesting and potentially fatal that I'll tell you more about it here. Strapelka is a sample of "strange matter", a microbunch of matter composed of strange quarks. The term comes from the English “strangelet” (strange + droplet, “strange + drop”), and in the Russian-language literature, in particular, in this work of SB Shaulov, the translation of “stranglet” is still found. Nevertheless, by now the translation “strapelka” (strange + droplet), invented in 2005 by astrophysicist Sergei Popov, has taken root more.
Here's how Strange Matter is described in the source in question:
Our entire history is connected with this abode. The Golden Horde and the emergence of eminent boyar families, royal families - the Godunovs and Saburovs, exploits and victories in the Time of Troubles, the cradle of a new monarch's dynasty, the wedding to the throne of the first Romanov, flourishing and prosperity under high patronage, devastation in the Soviet years and the symbolic date of the beginning of the revival - 1000th anniversary of the Baptism of Rus ... All this is the Ipatiev Monastery.
Legend one. XIV century. Fifty years before the Battle of Kulikovo. An influential nobleman, the Tatar Murza Chet goes from the Golden Horde to Moscow to serve the Grand Duke Ivan Kalita. Keeps his way along the Volga, gets seriously ill on the way. The ships have to dock to the shore. The place is convenient and beautiful: an oak grove, the place where the Kostroma river flows into the Volga. Murza is dying. But then the Most Holy Theotokos, the holy Apostle Philip and the holy martyr Hypatius of Gangres appear in a miraculous appearance to him. Chet fervently prays to the Mother of God and the saints, receives healing from an illness and is baptized with the name of Zechariah. In the place of the vision, he founds a monastery, builds a stone church in the name of the Life-Giving Trinity, and in memory of his miraculous healing orders to paint an icon depicting an amazing phenomenon. Before the revolution, this was a widespread version (see Description of the Kostroma Ipatiev Monastery. M., 1832).
The second legend presents the foundation of the monastery a little differently. The same Chet, a noble Murza, was baptized even in the Horde at the hands of Metropolitan Peter (later canonized) and only later, having learned that the Grand Duke of Moscow was gathering eminent people into his principality for the service, he went along the rivers to Moscow to Ivan Kalita ... Before reaching Kostroma, fascinated by the landscapes, I moored to the shore to rest. The place of his stopping - Merskiy Stan (from the name of local tribes - "Merya"). Here the vision of the Mother of God and Saints Philip and Hypatius happened to Chetu-Zacharias, and, wishing to enlighten the local pagans with the light of Christ's faith, he founded a monastery here.
There are other versions, for example, that Murza was baptized and blessed to found a monastery in Moscow. And even this: Chet was not any kind of Murza, but was either one of the locals - a Kostroma Merian, or a Russian boyar son who came to Kostroma from Galician lands.
In the 40s of the last century, the famous historian, academician S. B. Veselovsky questioned these legends. He argued that Chet is a mythical figure, and the monastery was founded at the end of the 13th century - most likely by the Kostroma prince Vasily Yaroslavich, brother of Prince Alexander Nevsky (see. Veselovsky S. B. From the history of ancient Russian land tenure. The genus of Dmitry Alexandrovich Zernov (Saburovs, Godunovs and Velyaminovs-Zernovs) // Historical Notes. T. 8. M., 1946).
Some modern historians believe that the monastery was founded by Novgorodians even earlier - in the first half of the 13th century. They justify this, in particular, by the fact that at that time nowhere in Russia, except for Veliky Novgorod, there were no churches in honor of St. Hypatius of Gangrsky, which means, they believe, that the monastery was most likely founded by some pious Novgorod boyar.
Be that as it may, in the first half of the XIV century at the confluence of the Kostroma with the Volga there were already log buildings, including the first wooden church of the Life-Giving Trinity, they were surrounded by oak walls, and several significant ones went from the founder of the Ipatiev Monastery for the history of the Russian state of boyar and even royal families. In the fifth generation of the Chet-Zacharias clan (God knows whether it actually existed or not), two brothers were born who took different surnames - nicknamed: Fedor Ivanovich Sabur and Ivan Ivanovich Godun. From them came the famous families - the Saburovs and the Godunovs. Many of their representatives are buried within the walls of the Ipatiev Monastery, some took monastic vows here. In addition, the noble Russian surnames Zernovs, Sheins, Velyaminovs came from the same Kostroma root ... The descendants of Zakhariya-Chet gave Russia two tsars - Boris and Fedor Godunov, Tsarina Irina Godunova, Grand Duchess Solomonia Saburova and Tsarevna Evdokia Saburova.
After the death of Prince Vasily Yaroslavich of Kostroma (he left no heirs), the Kostroma principality was abolished and its lands returned to the Vladimir reign. In other words, from now on they were owned by the grand dukes - the elders among all the princely fraternity of North-Eastern Russia. And in the 16th century, the Ipatiev Monastery came under the patronage of the Godunovs, who considered the monastery their "family". The Godunovs were generous donors - they donated villages and villages to the monastery, large sums of money. As a result, a small monastery in the XIV-XV centuries by the end of the XVI century. became one of the four largest landowning monasteries in the country. The Godunovs donated silver vessels, precious church utensils made of gold and gilded to the monastery, replenished the sacristy and the library of the monastery. Inset icons, manuscripts, handwritten books in silver and gilded frames, with miniatures and ornaments - many of those gifts are now kept in the funds of the Kostroma Museum-Reserve, the Tretyakov Gallery, the Historical Museum, the Armory Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin.
Wooden buildings in the monastery were replaced by stone ones. On the site of the wooden church of the Life-Giving Trinity in 1560, a five-domed stone Trinity Cathedral with side-chapels in the name of the holy Apostle Philip and the Holy Martyr Hypatius was erected. Churches and belfries were built. In 1586, the oak fence was replaced with stone monastery walls about one and a half meters thick with five entrance gates, six archer towers, secret passages and gate churches. The monastery turned into a real fortress, blocking the enemy's path along the Yaroslavl road.
At the end of the 16th century, the Ipatiev Monastery, which acquired enormous weight in the political life of the country and became one of its main spiritual centers, was already called the "Prevenita Lavra".