Fern structure: features and description of appearance

Ferns are the oldest plants that have inhabited the Earth since the Mesozoic era and have survived to this day. They belong to the numerous department of higher spore vascular plants. Nowadays, they are found in almost all climatic zones, except for Antarctica.

What are the characteristics of life, growth and development?

Most species are epiphytes or epiphylls. Growing on the branches, trunks or leaves of other plants, they receive water and nutrients from the environment. There are species living on the surface of water bodies and even under water.

Ferns are very hygrophilous, prefer humid tropical and subtropical forests, in the Middle Belt - low-lying swampy areas.

Like all higher plants, they are characterized by alternation of generations: asexual (sporophyte) and sexual (gameophyte). Asexual generation is dominant.

What is the hallmark?

The fern has features inherent in various representatives of the flora. It reproduces by spores, just like moss. However, it has a structure more characteristic of the representatives of the world of seed plants: root, stem and leaves. Unlike mosses, they have a complex structure of a leaf plate and a vascular conducting system.

Fern differs from seed plants by the absence of cambium, cyclicity and phases of development, as well as by the way of reproduction.

Appearance: what parts of the plant have (in the photo and pictures)


The stem is from a few centimeters in length to 20 meters or more (in arboreal forms). It can be erect or liana-like, curly. In some species, the stem is located underground and is a rhizome. In tree-like specimens, the trunk is sometimes formed by a plexus of rigid adventitious roots.

Spore-bearing organs

Spores are single cells covered with a membrane and are used by ferns for reproduction. Disputes ripen in special formations - sporangia. Groups of sporangia or sori can be seen on the underside of the wai as small dark tubercles.

Ferns: features of structure, life and growth. What is the appearance of the leaf, outgrowth, stem and root in the photo? The description of the distinctive spore-bearing and characteristic internal development is brief. What is a vegetative organ?

What can be made from seeds

Application - you get a three-dimensional picture on paper, which can be done using any kind of seeds. For the applique, it is better to take cardboard as a basis, because the paper will be thin and may not withstand the load of heavy seeds

Shapes - you can glue the seeds together and get a volumetric figure

Use as decoration - crafts made of seeds for children can be made in combination with other material, and the seeds will act as a decoration or auxiliary

Use as decorations - someone creates whole garlands or snowflakes from seeds, decorating the room with finished products

What are the seeds?

Usually, certain shapes are used for crafts from seeds with their own hands. There is a small classification of what kind of seeds there are:

In the form of a drop or oval - this shape can be seen in crafts from watermelon seeds, from pumpkin seeds or sunflower seeds. They are often used in volumetric applications or taken as a basis for crafts

Krupa - you can take any that is in the closet at home. It can be used for different purposes - glued, poured, mixed with other types of cereals or seeds

Tree Seeds - Maple Airplanes, Ash or Elm Seeds

Legume seeds - beans, peas, beans - have a wide color palette and a large shape, which makes them popular when creating crafts

Hello friends. From a certain period, I became interested in painting (I bought albums, exhibitions, information about artists and paintings) and really wanted to be involved in this area myself, but life decided otherwise. And somehow (thanks to YandexDirect) I came across information about painting courses. I decided to do it, especially since the schedule is suitable - twice a week. I studied for a year and decided to share my first picture and the result of the last weeks.

"The Road to Ponizovka"

Summer landscape in a winter ribbon ???????????? Landscape "The Road to Ponizovka", oil on canvas, 40x50

Found what I want to do

I started drawing in May 2019. And here are the best works in my opinion. Some you may have seen, but I decided to combine some into one post.

I started painting with a simple set of oil paints of 12 colors, thinner, a small canvas 20 by 20 and two synthetic brushes (about 2 tons came out for everything). When I realized that I was completely absorbed by the process and time flies behind it imperceptibly, I began to bribe with tubes of paint, watched videos on YouTube and tested the skills I had gained on a rough canvas.

I hope you enjoy my work at least a little, but in any case I love painting and will never part with this occupation. I found what I love to do, which I wish everyone.

The parable of our desires and the cat

Once a cat came to a man.

- But why do I need your desire? - the person was surprised

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