Bank strengthening technology with a volumetric geogrid

Strengthening the coast with a polymer volumetric geogrid is a modern and inexpensive way to create a beautiful coastline that is reliably protected from erosion and erosion. The technology of reinforcement with a geogrid is simple and suitable even for those who are going to beautify a summer cottage with their own hands.

Geogrid is one of the most advanced reinforcing materials on the modern construction market, widely used in road construction and landscaping to strengthen weak soils and increase the bearing capacity of subgrade bases.

Shore protection with the help of a geogrid is available even to those who are engaged in landscaping on their own - the simple installation technology and the low weight of the material guarantee that all work can be done manually using the simplest tools.

By their design, geogrids are a bulk material made of polymer strips welded together, forming geocells. The cells of the material are elastic and have a significant margin of tensile and tensile strength. Any bulk material can be used as a honeycomb filler - fertile soil with grass seeds, crushed stone, bright pebbles or decorative marble chips.

Why choose geosynthetics for coastal strengthening?

Traditionally, natural (oak and larch beams, coconut mats) and artificial (concrete and metal piles) materials are used for bank protection; strengthening by means of landscaping is also practiced. Each of these methods has significant drawbacks: landscaping the shore of the reservoir can take many months, metal and concrete piles look unaesthetic and require the use of special equipment during installation, wood and coconut mats are gradually destroyed under the influence of moisture and low temperatures.

Environmentally friendly and durable polymer geogrids combine the advantages of artificial and natural materials, and are also suitable for the implementation of a variety of projects in the field of improvement.

Benefits of using a geogrid

  • Durability, resistance to mechanical damage and environmental factors (temperature fluctuations, moisture, mold, insects and rodents) and chemical agents (oil, gasoline, fertilizers and weed control agents );
  • Preservation of purity of water (polymer materials do not emit harmful substances and are suitable for use in nature reserves, for the improvement of reservoirs for fish farming);
  • Environmental friendliness (the structure and material of the geogrid does not interfere natural growth and development of the root system of plants);
  • Simplicity and high speed of installation (does not require special skills and the use of heavy equipment);
  • Versatility in application (suitable for reservoirs with stagnant water, medium and fast current, can be used both on stable and loosely connected soils);
  • Wide possibilities of landscape design (landscaping of clay banks, creation of terraces and approaches to water, decorative design with pebbles and marble crumbs);
  • Invisibility (after filling with filler and germination of plants, the cells of the geogrid become invisible even at close distance, which allows the fortified area to look natural);
  • Low cost (in comparison with such materials such as concrete piles and hardwood beams, geogrids are much more affordable and much easier to transport).

The main stages of laying a geogrid for bank protection

  • Preparation of the soil base. The top layer of fertile soil is removed from the site, protruding roots, stones and other objects that can damage geosynthetic materials are removed. If necessary, part of the soil is cut off to give the bank a flatter shape. Tamping is carried out with a manual vibrating plate or roller;
  • Creation of a drainage layer. Recommended for areas with waterlogged clay soils and high groundwater levels, as well as for flooded banks. For the arrangement of the drainage layer, geotextiles are used - a non-woven fabric made of polymer threads, which has the property of a reverse filter. Before installing the geogrid with a geogrid, it is necessary to cover the entire area of ​​the coastal slope, leaving an overlap of 30 cm along the upper border of the site;
  • Installation of the geogrid. The material structure consists of standard fixed size modules. After placing on the slope, the lattice modules are interconnected to create a single structure - a reinforced cage;
  • Fixation of the reinforcing structure. To fix the geogrid on a soil base, T- or L-shaped anchor fasteners (pins) made of plastic or metal are used. The length and shape of the anchors is selected depending on the geological conditions of the site, the most common pins are 70-100 cm long, made of metal reinforcement. Anchors are placed in a checkerboard pattern throughout the entire area and perimeter of the site;
  • Geogrid modules connection. The lattice modules are connected using a pneumatic stapler, after which the reinforcement cage turns into a monolithic structure. After connection, the adherence of the reinforcement cage to the ground is checked, as well as the parallelism of the sides of all modules;
  • Filling of the filler. After creating a geoframe, its cells are manually filled with the selected material. If you want to green the coastline, the soil used as a filler is sown with seeds of perennial plants, rammed and irrigated. When choosing plants, it is recommended to pay attention to species resistant to waterlogging with a branched root structure (willow, manna, cattail, wild iris).

Birds in a private garden - this is pleasant chirping and lively fluttering along the branches. In autumn, when the garden is “bare” and empty, little birds give it a new sound.

Birds play an aesthetic and sanitary role. They are irreplaceable helpers in the fight against harmful insects. Feeding troughs will help you attract and retain nurses in your garden. You can make beautiful bird feeders with your own hands from scrap materials, for example, from plastic bottles.

Content of the article:

  • General rules for making feeders
  • Successful ideas with short instructions
  • Master class: a convenient bunker-type feeder
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    General rules for making feeders

    With a cold snap and the first snow, forest birds have an acute shortage of food. It is advisable to hang feeders in the garden at the beginning of autumn and replenish supplies as they empty. Don't put in a lot of food at once. Over time, mold and mildew develop, turning the grain into unusable food.

    When choosing a design, they are guided by the following:

    • keeping feed dry even during rain;
    • unhindered access of birds to feed;
    • perches are desirable;
    • the presence of two or more holes, while they must be through so that the bird does not perceive the feeder as a trap;
    • the sections are glued with adhesive tape or tape;
    • the height of the sides is 7-10 cm.

    It is necessary to fasten the finished feeder with the calculation of the convenience of restocking, but at the same time the inaccessibility for cats is taken into account. For the feeder, a material that is resistant to moisture and the sun, lightweight, wear-resistant and safe for birds is suitable. Plastic meets these criteria, and plastic bottles will serve as an excellent base.

    Good ideas with quick instructions

    The 1.5-liter or 5-liter plastic bottle design for bird feeders is of 2 types: free feed access and hopper system. In the first type, windows are cut in the bottle through which the bird takes the feed poured onto the bottom. In the second case, the food is poured with a reserve into the “bunker”, from where it flows by “gravity” into a special tray or to the bottom of the feeder as the birds eat it. The second design is convenient in that it is not possible to replenish the "canteen" every day, and the remainder is clearly visible through the transparent plastic.

    Graphic tablets are specialized devices that are designed for manual data entry (most often with a separate stylus-pen). Simply put, this is an electronic sheet on which you can draw anything. To choose a tablet suitable for work or play, you need to consider the criteria for choosing such devices and the rating of the best models of 2021, according to buyers.

    How to choose a graphics tablet

    The procedure for choosing graphic tablets is quite complicated even for experienced users who work in the field of design, not to mention beginners. In order not to overpay, to purchase exactly the device that will meet expectations, it is important to know which parameters to pay special attention to.

    Size

    The first important parameter is the size of the work area. However, the rule does not work here - the more, the better and more convenient. In fact, even the smallest graphics tablet is enough to work with any pixel. But you will have to do more movements, constantly move around different areas of the screen.

    According to experts, user reviews, the best option is the A5 form (the size of the working area is 210 by 148 mm).

    For designers, engineers, constructors, it is recommended to accumulate and choose a tablet with the A4 format of the working area (dimensions of the working area - 297x210 mm).

    Resolution

    This parameter specifies the sensitivity of the working area of ​​the graphics tablet to the movement of the stylus on it. The extension is lpi. To understand how to choose the right device for this parameter, you need to know what lpi stands for. As an example, the 2000 lpi designation indicates that one inch of the tablet's active surface can hold 2000 wires of the electronic grid that reads the movements of the pen.

    For entry-level devices, the normal resolution is 2000 lpi. For devices of an amateur and professional level, this parameter should be significantly higher.

    PC connection

    According to the method of connecting the tablet to the computer, there are two options.

    • Wired are connected to the computer via the USB connector.
    • Wireless have a built-in battery, Bluetooth module.

    Attractive appearance created by works of nature is an important part of a pleasant pastime on any plot of land.

    The best decoration of any summer cottage and garden plot is a flower bed, which is an earth bed planted with flowers. There are various options for creating flower beds and flower beds with your own hands, which may differ in shape, size and arrangement of flowers.

    In addition to a beautiful look, flower beds in the country can perform an important function of combining all buildings with their surrounding territory into a single whole.

    Planning

    For the most successful design of a flower bed with your own hands, the planning stage is important, during which you must decide what result you want to see in the end. For a better visual presentation, you can draw a drawing of a future project, which will fully form the requirements for your flower garden.

    To get started, you need to accurately answer the following questions:

    • Dimensions of the flower bed
    • Shape of the flower bed
    • Location of the flower bed on the plot
    • Material of the flower bed

    The finished flower bed should fit into the garden landscape and not stand out in style. The task of a beautiful flower bed is to complement the environment without interfering with the perception of other objects.

    Colors

    When decorating a flower bed with your own hands, an important point is the correct selection of plants. The following types of flowers are distinguished by the flowering period:

    • Annuals ;
    • Biennials ;
    • Perennials.

    • Short (less than 35 cm);
    • Medium (35-80 cm);
    • Tall (more than 80 cm).

    Having a summer cottage, you always want to equip it, and even somehow in a special way. However, garden decorative elements are not cheap, and they do not differ in durability.

    People with a developed imagination can make original crafts for a garden from cement, which is distinguished not only by its high resistance to various kinds of influences (frost, hail, sun, water), but also by its availability (it can be bought at an affordable cost in any hardware store).

    Content of the article:

    • The nuances of working with cement mortar
    • Interesting ideas for beginners
    • Complex shapes with a frame
    • Step-by-step instructions for making: 3 master classes

    The nuances of working with cement mortar

    For decoration and design additions, you can use flower pots, pots, figurines of fairy-tale characters or objects of the plant world, made with your own hands from cement. This material is not moody, and most have a lot or little experience with it. Still, there are several important rules that must be followed in order for crafts from cement mortar to turn out to be of high quality and durable.

    The very technology for preparing the mixture is as follows. The main components are being prepared: cement, building sand, water and tile adhesive (for better plasticity and reducing the risk of microcracking). For 1 part of cement, 2 parts of sand are taken (for greater strength, you can take 1 part) and 1 part of glue. Lastly, add water in small portions until the consistency of thick sour cream. It is convenient to work with such a mixture: it does not drain and at the same time is quite plastic.

    All cement products require prolonged drying. Freezing can take up to 7 days. To prevent the surface from cracking, the finished creation is covered with polyethylene. To give the product a beautiful and regular shape, the base is placed on a hill of sand or buried in it (depending on the idea), but not on a flat surface.

    After complete hardening, the figure must be covered with a primer and only then can paint or varnish be applied. If the craft has roughness and other irregularities, it is finalized with sandpaper and a file before priming.

    In addition to cement mortar, concrete is sometimes used, which is distinguished by the presence of large fractions (pebbles or gravel) and increased strength. Crafts made of concrete for a summer residence can be represented by large monolithic boulders, and it is also convenient to use this material to create a basis for various compositions (a platform for a fountain, a pedestal for a sculpture, a terrace for flower pots, etc.).

    Another material similar in its application is gypsum. It is not as strong as cement, but more flexible and decorative. It can be used to create hollow shapes. For garden creativity, molding (sculptural), acrylic and architectural types are used. When working with this material, you need to take into account its rapid solidification. Very often it is recommended to add it to the cement mortar when creating sculptures.

    Interesting ideas for beginners

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