A change in the color of the mushroom pulp is an alarming sign that casts doubt on the edibility of the specimen. If the porcini mushroom found turns pink, this means that it is unsuitable for food, since the boletus never change the color of the pulp on the cut of the leg or cap. Despite the fact that most of the species that turn pink at the site of the break are poisonous, there is also an edible variety.
Any experienced mushroom picker will say that if the porcini mushroom turns pink, it is better not to put it in the basket, but to leave it in the forest.
Help! A distinctive feature of boletus is dense white pulp that does not change color after cutting. It always remains creamy or white, has a dense structure and a pleasant smell.
Changing the color of the pulp is one of the key criteria by which edible specimens are distinguished from poisonous ones. If the place of the cut begins to turn red or has acquired a pinkish tint, it is better to bypass such a copy. It is most likely poisonous and can cause serious food poisoning.
It should be remembered that some edible species may turn blue at a break or in a place of mechanical damage. A striking example is the Polish mushroom. This is one of the varieties of white, and the flesh begins to change color within a few minutes. Even after minimal pressure on the cap, its surface turns blue with brown.
Important! Each mushroom picker must learn to distinguish between poisonous and edible varieties, not only by the color of the pulp, but also by other characteristics.
Suppose that the white mushroom found in the forest turned pink on the cut almost instantly. This is a very alarming sign, so you need to consider the found copy in more detail.
Important! The porcini mushroom does not have many poisonous counterparts, but they are so similar to the boletus that it will not be difficult to confuse them during the "quiet hunt".
Autumn mushrooms are one of the most popular mushrooms among lovers of quiet hunting. They are easy to recognize by their convex hats, thin "skirt" and long legs. Where and when you can find these mushrooms, how not to confuse them with poisonous counterparts, learn from this article.
They are rare on earth. Most often they grow on damaged trees and stumps located along the edges of ravines. It is believed that autumn mushrooms are forest parasites. They easily infect more than two hundred species of shrubs and trees. The appearance of fungi on wood leads to the development of white rot, as a result of which the tree dies. Growing together at the base, mushrooms grow in families, so you can quickly collect a whole bucket.
Where to look for autumn mushrooms? This type of mushroom is found in different climatic zones, ranging from the subtropics to the Far North. Honey mushrooms did not reach only the permafrost regions.
A temperate climate is suitable for these mushrooms. But in arid regions, they are less common. Most often, honey agarics grow in deciduous and mixed forests, which are at least three decades old.
In Ufa, for example, such places can be found by walking along the Belaya River in Iglinsky, Nurimanovsky and Kushnarenkovsky districts. The environs of the Ulyanovsk and Samara regions are rich in honey. In the Tagai forest, as well as near the village of Yasashnaya Tashle, there are many places where these mushrooms have grown with whole families.
On the Crimean land, autumn mushrooms are often found in the forests of Bakhchisarai, Belogorsk, Kirov and Simferopol regions. In the Krasnodar Territory, most of the autumn mushrooms are harvested near the village of Ku-Tais. Also, many mushrooms grow near the villages of Goryachy Klyuch, Kamyshanovaya and Kaluzhskaya Polyany. In the Voronezh region, honey mushrooms should be looked for near the villages of Maklok and the village of Soldatskoye.
HELP! In Western countries, it is not customary to collect honey mushrooms. Europeans consider them to be toadstools and leave them uncut in the forest. In Eastern Europe and Russia, the situation is reversed. For example, according to polls, up to 60% of mushroom pickers collect autumn mushrooms in Crimea.
You can start collecting from the second half of July, and end with the onset of frost. The most active mushroom fruiting occurs in two waves. The first starts at the end of August and lasts about two weeks. At this time, you can harvest the maximum yield. This is followed by a short break (up to a crescent), and then a new wave begins. Much depends on the region. While in Siberia mushroom pickers close the season in October, Sochi lovers of quiet hunting do it a month later.
Autumn mushrooms in the Moscow region are very diverse, because the climate of this region is ideal for "quiet hunting". Many people prefer to collect honey mushrooms, since this mushroom grows in large groups and is quite common.
With the end of summer, many mushroom pickers are wondering whether the autumn mushrooms have gone to the Moscow region and where it is better to go to collect a rich harvest.
Help! The harvesting season in this region begins in August, but if the autumn weather is warm, mushrooms can be found in October as well.
To know when to go to the forest for mushrooms, you need to study the description of honey agarics, their main types and growth features:
It is noteworthy that autumn species can grow not only on fallen trees, but also on living trees, while winter species are found only on old stumps.
The Yaroslavl direction of the railway is considered one of the best regions of the Moscow region for collecting forest mushrooms.
There are several places to go here:
But the best for picking mushrooms are the forests near the Pushkino station. This is an ecologically clean region where not only honey mushrooms are found, but also mushrooms, boletus and aspen mushrooms.
True polypore (Fomes fomentarius) is a mushroom from the Coriolaceae family, belonging to the Fomes genus. Saprophyte, belongs to the class of Agaricomycetes, the category of Polyporovs. Widely distributed.
The fruiting bodies of the present tinder fungus are perennial, in young mushrooms they have a rounded shape, and in mature ones they become hoof-like. The fungus of this species does not have legs, therefore the fruiting body is characterized as sessile. Connection to the surface of the tree trunk occurs only through the central, upper part.
The hat of the described species is very large, in ripe fruit bodies it is up to 40 cm wide and up to 20 cm high. The peel of the fruit body is wavy, characterized by unevenness, dullness and a darker shade in the area of the depressions. Cracks can sometimes be seen on the surface of the fruiting body. The color of the cap of the mushroom can vary from light, grayish, to rich gray in mature mushrooms. Only occasionally the shade of the cap and fruiting body of a real tinder fungus can be light beige.
The flesh of the described mushroom is dense, corky and soft, sometimes it can be woody. When cut, it becomes velvety, suede. By color, the flesh of the present tinder fungus is more often brownish, deep reddish-brown, sometimes nutty.
The tubular hymenophore of the fungus contains light, rounded spores. When you press on it, the color of the element changes to a darker one. The spore powder of this tinder fungus is white and contains spores of 14-24 * 5-8 microns in size. they are smooth in structure, oblong in shape, and have no color.
True tinder belongs to the saprophyte category. It is this fungus that is the main cause of the appearance of white rot on the trunks of deciduous trees. Due to its parasitism, thinning and destruction of woody tissue occurs. The fungus of this species is widespread enough on the territory of the European continent. You can see it everywhere in many European countries, including Russia. The real tinder fungus parasitizes mainly on deciduous tree species. Plantings of birches, oaks, alder, aspen, and beeches are often exposed to its negative impact. You can often find real tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius) on dead wood, rotten stumps and dead trees. However, it can also infect very weak, but still living deciduous trees. Living trees are infected with this fungus through fractures in branches, cracks in the trunks and in the bark.
The Polish mushroom is similar not only in appearance, but also in taste to white, as well as to another edible species - champignon. Fried forest gifts with butter and onions will please many. And the preparation of the dish is very simple. Polish mushroom: how to cook, fry, prepare for the winter?
First you need to make sure that this is really a flywheel, and not a poisonous specimen that looks like it. The "Pole" has a large hat, the color of which can be from brown to brown. The stem is lighter in color compared to the porcini mushroom. And when you press on the pulp, it turns blue. Photos and videos describing the collection and characteristics of Polish mushrooms can be found on the Web.
Once the gifts of the forest are brought home, they should be processed. This is a mandatory procedure because it provides security. The fruits should be peeled. Part of the leg with the ground must be cut off, wormy areas must be eliminated. Then they are washed with running water.
Attention! Fruits must be picked far from the road. They absorb toxins and heavy metals, which can cause poisoning. Do not take wormy specimens. It is important that the caps are straight and free from damage.
Although cooking loses its taste, essential oils, vitamins and microelements, the Poles should be boiled. The duration of this procedure is 20 minutes. This is required in order to eliminate harmful substances that accumulate in the fruit. Only after boiling can you fry the Polish mushroom in a pan, make canning, prepare mushroom soup, quickly fry with sour cream.
To prepare a delicious dish, you need the following components:
Butter or vegetable oil can be used for frying. Fat is also fine.
Step by step cooking description: