Etiology and classification of disorders of ODA, forms of cerebral palsy

The disease stands for cerebral palsy. This is a concept that unites a group of motor disorders resulting from damage to certain brain structures during the perinatal period. Cerebral palsy can include mono-, para-, hemi-, tetraparesis and paralysis, pathological disorders of muscle tone, speech disorders, hyperkinesis, unsteadiness of gait, impaired coordination of movements, lag in the child's mental and motor development, frequent falls.

Causes of Cerebral Palsy

Brain damage resulting in cerebral palsy is acquired. When asked whether cerebral palsy is inherited, experts answer negatively.

It can be of completely different origins and occur during any period of intrauterine development and after childbirth. The causes of cerebral palsy can be divided into 3 groups according to the time of their exposure:

This group of causes includes diseases of a pregnant woman, leading to hypoxia or inflammatory damage to all organs and systems of the fetus, including ischemic or infectious brain damage:

  • Intrauterine infections: cytomegalovirus, herpes infection, maternal rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.
  • Placental insufficiency.
  • Severe Rh-conflict.
  • Placental abruption.
  • Toxicosis in a pregnant woman, especially late, accompanied by nephropathy, increased blood pressure, edema.
  • Diseases of the heart, blood vessels in the mother : hypertension, coronary heart disease, decompensated heart defects, cardiac arrhythmias.
  • Blood diseases in a pregnant woman, for example, severe iron deficiency anemia.
  • Diseases of the endocrine system (hypofunction thyroid gland, diabetes mellitus).
  • Multiple pregnancy.
  • Polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios.
  • Chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.
  • Umbilical cord developmental pathologies and blood vessels in it.
  • Bad habits of a woman during pregnancy (smoking, alcohol abuse, drug addiction).

Intranatal causes of cerebral palsy

These include complications during childbirth:

  • Wrong position of the fetus: pelvic, transverse.
  • Discoordinated labor, rapid or, conversely, protracted labor.
  • Clinically narrow pelvis.
  • Prolonged dry period.
  • Inappropriate management of labor.
  • Use of techniques such as forceps or vacuum extraction of the fetus.
  • Birth trauma.
  • Premature birth.
  • Fetal asphyxia due to tight cord entanglement.

Cerebral palsy is especially common for these reasons as a result of "home" childbirth.

Diseases of the child in the antenatal period

Premature, weakened children are most often susceptible to such diseases:

  • Asphyxiation by amniotic fluid.
  • Hemolytic disease in newborns due to Rh-conflict or incompatibility of the blood group with the mother's body.
  • Infectious diseases of the brain (meningitis, encephalitis, arachnoiditis and their combinations), developing after childbirth.
  • Anomalies in the development of cerebral vessels (aneurysms, malformations), leading to the development of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke.
  • Toxic damage to the brain of a child due to drug poisoning.

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