Everything is clear with the first two forms. But what to do when functional dyslalia is diagnosed? Speech therapy in this case offers powerful correction methods that can help the patient. However, the first thing to do is to figure out what caused it and how it manifests itself.
The emergence of functional dyslalia is associated with stable individual characteristics of the nervous system. Violation of this type is reversible, in contrast to mechanical dyslalia, which is caused by an incorrect structure of the speech apparatus, when correction is possible exclusively by surgery.
Dyslalia and dysarthria are two groups of speech disorders that have external similarity, since in either case the speech in children is incomprehensible, with incorrect pronunciation of individual sounds or a group of sounds. What is the difference between dysarthria and dyslalia? Differences are manifested not only in terms of neurological status, but also in mental and speech terms.
The reason for the development of dyslalia has not yet been clarified. The functional form of speech disorder is not associated with gross intrauterine and birth trauma, brain diseases. In some cases, dyslalia arises from an unfavorable speech environment (archaisms, dialects). Dysarthria in children develops under the influence of the following factors:
In adults, dysarthria can develop in patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain neoplasms, pathology of cerebral vessels or degenerative diseases of the nervous system.
With dyslalia, neurologists do not observe gross lesions of the central nervous system. IN in some cases, organic microsymptomatics are determined. More often, there is a violation of the autonomic nervous system in the form of persistent red dermographism, a symptom of Khvostek. In patients with dysarthria, gross symptoms with the presence of hyperkinesis, paresis, and involvement of the V, VII, IX, X and XII pairs of cranial nerves in the process come to the fore. The defeat of these nerves caused the following manifestations of dysarthria:
With functional dyslalia, the phonetic side of speech is predominantly affected. Cardiac activity, breathing, voice and motor skills are mostly not impaired. Only in cases of rhinolalia (mechanical dyslalia), when there are anatomical defects in the palate, nasality appears (speech with a nasal tinge), breathing and voice are impaired. Differential diagnosis of dyslalia should be carried out with erased dysarthria.
In turn, experts identify two types of functional dyslalia: