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People are not symmetrical. Most of us use one specific arm and also balance on one leg rather than the other. The brain also does not function symmetrically. A variant of this idea has long lived in pop psychology, where people are sometimes characterized as left-brain (analytical) or right-brain (creative). Although the population version of this is based on dubious data, the basic idea of asymmetric brain functioning - lateralization - is well known. For example, human speech is usually processed in the left hemisphere, while spatial information is processed in the right.
The type of lateralization most familiar to humans is hand activity. This has been studied in animals, for example, which hands monkeys use to grab something and so on. But what if the animal under study has no arms or paws?
It turns out that behavioral asymmetries come in different types, not just arms and legs, but also sensory asymmetries, in which we do better at different types of tasks depending on which eye we are using, including unconscious head turns and body.
When studying lateralization in dolphins, scientists disagreed as to what counts as "right" or "left" rotation. After much discussion, they realized that they had stumbled upon a strange quirk of human perception. People seem to interpret the direction of rotation differently depending on the orientation of the animal.
Prior to that, almost all scientific studies of lateralization of rotational movements studied only one direction of orientation, for example, the rotation of a person in an upright position - therefore the question was never raised. However, this meant that the published studies actually used opposite coding systems for different animals, depending on their orientation. In a spin, in which the right side moved towards the front of the body, this was commonly referred to as "left / counterclockwise" in relation to people and birds, but as "right / clockwise" in relation to dolphins and whales.
Several previous scientific articles have argued that dolphins exhibit strong right-sided behavioral asymmetries similar to human right-handedness, and therefore have a left-brain specialization for action. But since “correct” did not always mean the same thing in earlier coding systems, it was unclear if this was true. To test this, scientists examined various types of behavioral asymmetry in 26 dolphins, and the questions sounded like "In which direction do they swim the lagoon?", "Which side of their body do they touch objects?" and "In what direction do they rotate if they dive up and to the side?" By separating the different types of movement and using the unambiguous RiFS / LeFS coding system, the scientists found that dolphins do not have a common right-sided asymmetry.
Kelly Jacola of Scientific American reports on the research of scientists in his article.
"The more I get to know people, the more I love dogs," said one of the greats. Sometimes four-legged pets are loved so much that they make up wills on animals and certify them at a notary. And we can talk about millions!
An eight-year-old border collie dog from Tennessee in the United States suddenly became a millionaire. Its owner, 84-year-old businessman Bill Doris, passed away a few weeks ago. As it turned out, he bequeathed $ 5 million to his beloved dog named Lulu. The man indicated in the document that his 88-year-old girlfriend Martha Burton would look after the dog.
• A woman can spend $ 5 million on the dog's monthly needs. To do this, she will submit receipts every month to a notary who will cover the costs of Lulu.
An 88-year-old resident of Verona (Italy) Cecilia Anna, after her death in 2018, left a fortune of € 1.5 million to a black-and-white mongrel cat named Pilu. The woman worked all her life in the Italian Council of Ministers and never started a family. Cecilia Anna picked up the cat Pyla several years ago on the street, and he became the closest being to her.
• The estate of the Peel is managed by the representatives of the Investor Fund. With the money left, the cat should be provided with veterinary services, provide comfortable housing and satisfy all his needs.
• After the death of the cat, the money will go to one of the animal protection organizations.
Last year, a resident of the Indian state of Bihar, 50-year-old Akhtar Imam, decided to bequeath part of his property to two elephants - 15-year-old Moti and 20-year-old Rani. Animals saved a man's life from armed bandits more than once when he worked in an elephant sanctuary. According to the will, which Akhtar Imam made with a notary, after his death the elephants will become the owners of a plot of land worth 10 million rupees ($ 138 thousand).
• Akhtar Imam's wife and children are unhappy that they will get a smaller piece of land and a house. But the man claims that his decision is justified: now the Indian (Asian) elephant, which previously lived throughout Asia, the person left only 15% of the former territory.