Torah and the Old Testament: a team of authors - to the answer! (and leave Moses alone)

So, overclocking takes a cycle of atheistic channel articles. Without at all encroaching on the content of all the Books that will be analyzed, the goal is simple. Which versions, in which (by number) copies we are using now. Whether those characters were given the original source. Today we will look for the Publishing House, which has shipped five Torah books to all long-suffering humanity. Which - and the first five books of the Old Testament of the Bible.

Archival census

The oldest (complete) manuscript of the Hebrew Bible, accurately dated, is the Codex Leningradensis, which is kept in the Russian National Library of St. Petersburg. This is not a usual Torah scroll, but a book written on calfskin (vellum). The time of its writing is 1008/1009.

Among other early medieval biblical manuscripts containing the text of the Pentateuch: the manuscript of the British Museum (895) and the Tbilisi manuscript of the X-XI centuries. And of course, the sensation of recent times - the complete Torah scrolls of the Bologna University Library, dated 1155-1225. creation. The vast majority of Hebrew biblical manuscripts date from the 12th-15th centuries or later.


The so-called "Pentateuch of Moses" tradition considers - the most ancient texts of the Old Testament. It is logical, like, who will object to the authorship of Moses? Once upon a time there was a great man during the time of the legendary Ramses II and his heir. He did a lot of terrible things in the name of the salvation of the "sons of Israel", received instructions to compose the sacred texts in this way.

Meticulously wrote down the history of the origin of life on Earth, not forgetting to emphasize the no less ancient history of the Jewish people. Of course, all this is extremely controversial, but today I will not encroach on the fabulous. So, the Bible begins with the book of Genesis: there God created the Universe and the sinful Earth, took up botanical and zoological progressives: created man, the platypus and the cannabis.

Further, it is described in detail about the difficult fate of the exiles from the Garden of Eden, the routes of their migrations, all sorts of godly and (for the most part) disgusting tricks that ended in God's Wrath and the Flood. Allowing the director of the zoo, the righteous Noah with his household, still restore a reasonable presence on the planet. Until the time of Joseph the Beautiful.

The second book "Exodus" dramatically tells about the hard life of the Jews in Egyptian slavery, the miraculous deliverance from the first concentration camp by the oncoming genocide of Patriarch Moses. There is also a bright side in this mutual madness of Jews and Egyptians - universal human Laws appear, issued under the record to Moses on Mount Sinai.

The third book "Leviticus" describes in detail the ceremony of worship to the One Creator. The book "Numbers" depicts the return of the Jews to their native lands, records in detail the entire genealogy of this God-chosen people. Well, the last, fifth part of the Pentateuch was called "Deuteronomy". It describes the civil and criminal traditions and the rights of Jews, re-recorded the Laws that should be used by a decent person.


A silly appeal, because it makes no sense to look for someone other than Moses. Even in Christianity, the text is called "The Pentateuch of Moses." For several thousand years this dogma was the most protected, doubting the authorship of the Old Testament patriarch was very dangerous for life and health. And it was considered a pointless occupation.

I'm not going to play jerky yet, I will be balanced. The opinion that the Pentateuch was entirely written by Moses alone has a sacred foundation. That is why it has rarely been criticized. The very first and timid attempts of theologians and theologians (not even heretics) to express a different opinion - met so amazed that the desire to continue the conversation disappeared.

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