The profession of a document specialist: job responsibilities

Any enterprise and government agency is hundreds of circulars, orders, job descriptions, orders. In one word - documents. It doesn't matter in what form they are transmitted, paper or electronic. The main thing is that without their turnover, any production will stop, since all communication between departments and departments will be disrupted. To prevent this from happening, in any serious institution they keep a whole staff of specialists - document specialists.

What is the difference between a document officer and a clerk?

The biggest confusion often arises between the professions of clerk and clerk. Are you talking about the same specialty or are they different? In fact, although they are related professions, document managers and clerks are still different.

Document experts are specialists who organize document flow at an enterprise.

Clerks are less skilled workers whose main task is to prepare and send official papers to various departments and departments

. As a rule, in small enterprises these responsibilities are combined by secretaries or personal assistant managers.

At a large enterprise or in a government department, the clerk manages a department and has a staff of several clerks under his command.

History of the profession

The history of the profession goes back centuries. Scribes can be called the first document experts. In ancient Egypt, scribes copied scrolls. The scribes were people specially taught to write, who understood not only spelling, but also knew the exact sciences.

Now the profession of a document specialist is predominantly female and quite in demand due to the rapid development of electronic document management and the economy.

Hundreds of insect species coexist with humans. Some of them live in personal plots, flower beds and lawns, others - in houses and apartments. With a small number, many of them do not cause problems, but, nevertheless, they are unpleasant neighbors. Such is, for example, the common earwig or, in another way, the mite (Forficula auricularia).


Few would call the earwig attractive. The flattened body is colored brown with different shades above and below. The insect is quite large, adults can reach a length of 15-17 mm. The jaw-shaped forceps (forcips) located on the abdomen look especially ominous. In males, they are longer and more powerful than in females, in addition, they are more curved. Tongs are used by insects to defend themselves and hold their prey. In a moment of danger, it bends its abdomen upward and widens its "jaws", preparing to inflict a "bite" on the offender. The earwig flies well. Long webbed wings at rest and when moving on surfaces are retracted under rigid elytra. In flight, the insect keeps upright. Despite the ability to fly, the earwig prefers to move with the help of three pairs of paws. She deftly climbs and runs, often penetrating into all kinds of crevices, cracks and holes. Earwigs are typical nocturnal insects. In the light period of the day, they are in reliable shelters - under stones, parts of trees, fallen leaves. In houses and apartments, they crawl into the crevices of the floors, under the baseboards, into communication boxes and niches. With the onset of darkness, the insect goes in search of food. The earwig is omnivorous, its diet includes:

  • plant food (various flowers, fruits and berries);
  • fungi, lichens and some algae;
  • small aphids, spiders, mites, insect eggs;
  • honey, bee bread, sugar, cereals, dried vegetables and fruits;
  • carrion.

In general, the earwig can consume almost any organic food it can find. The insect is most active in cloudy, but not rainy, warm weather. During prolonged rains or during severe cold snaps, it may not get out of the shelter for several days, waiting for an unfavorable period.

Types and distribution

The family of true earwigs includes 490 species, united in 65 genera. Not so long ago, almost all insects of the order of leathery-winged were attributed to earwigs. The size of representatives of this family varies from 5 to 40 mm. High vitality, omnivorousness and mobility allowed earwigs to settle on all continents, except, of course, Antarctica. The greatest diversity of species is noted in East Asia, where insects have found the most favorable conditions. Representatives of 62 species can be found in Europe. The conquest of individual continents continues to this day. So, even at the beginning of the 20th century in North America, the European earwig was found in single copies, now it can be found everywhere.


Mating of the common earwig, the most widespread species in our country, occurs in late summer - early autumn. Clutch of eggs is in a short burrow up to 15 cm long. In the nesting chamber located at the end of the tunnel, the female lays up to 60 eggs at the end of winter, which actively protects not only from enemies, but also from other earwigs. A second clutch may occur in the spring. The number of eggs in it is much less than in the first one.

The incubation period is quite long, it can go up to 80-85 days. As a result, in May-June, the eggs hatch into larvae about 4 mm in size, similar to adults, but differing from them in a lighter color and less developed organs. During the summer, the larva molts four times, each time becoming more and more like an adult earwig. By August, it acquires an "adult" appearance and is ready for reproduction. The rate of development of both eggs and larvae is strongly influenced by external conditions - humidity and temperature.

Why earwigs are dangerous

In nature, both harm and benefit are rather conventional concepts. This fully applies to earwigs. Seeing this insect, most people experience disgust and a certain fear. There is still a belief that earwigs like to crawl into the ears of sleeping people and gnaw through the eardrums. This, of course, is folklore, there is no reliable data on such cases. Another thing is that the contemplation of these insects does not give any pleasure, especially in your own home. In addition, the grip of a defending adult earwig can be quite painful. Curved forceps can pierce the delicate skin of children or women. Although, this is an infrequent occurrence. However, earwigs can cause some damage if, due to favorable conditions, their number increases sharply. first of all, beekeepers can suffer. The fact is that insects are very fond of both honey and bee bread, so they tend to get into the hive. With their high numbers, they not only eat high-calorie food, but also leave droppings inside the hive, polluting the bees' dwellings. Hoverts are capable of causing damage to many plants, and their preferences depend on the surrounding conditions. So, in the spring, they can damage the buds and buds of fruit trees when there is not enough food available. Pears, apple trees, peaches and plums are most often exposed to such raids. Already after the ripening of the fruit, insects can be seen on them. However, they are less dangerous to a ripe crop, since they cannot bite through a thick skin and more often use ready-made paths to juicy pulp - cracks, bird bites. Earwigs deliver a lot of troubles to flower growers, eating flower petals. At risk are:

I'm tired of constantly adding antifreeze. On the tanks of the VAZ 2110 (relatives), the quality is not very good, I was leaking from under the sensor and the lid, then I decided to buy a reservoir from the priors and put it on.

But during the installation there were problems ... or rather, the wear of the tubes, they simply burst and had to wait until the frosts subside ... Today I took off the frill and the stove, barely removed the old pipes ... then I barely barely put on new ones (Silicone helped) ... Tightening everything with clamps, poured Antifreeze iiiiiii ... after idle time - started up with a half-turn!

It remains to think about noise protection ... can someone tell me, but how does it look wrong ... who will advise what?

So far, the only drawback is that you won't install the sensor (((you will have to look under the hood more often!

Step-by-step replacement of the VAZ coolant reservoir

The composition of the water cooling system for VAZ cars of the "tenth" family necessarily includes a plastic expansion tank. When the volume of antifreeze increases as a result of heating, its surplus goes into this particular container. The second function of the element is to remove steam and excess pressure through a plug with a valve. The problem is that on "dozens" tanks often fail and car owners have to change them. The replacement procedure is not difficult and can be easily done by hand.

Expansion vessel location

A plastic tank for excess coolant is installed by the manufacturer in different places depending on the model of the "tenth" family:

    in cars of the VAZ 2110-12 series, the reservoir is located on the left side (in the direction of travel) between the rack glass and the wall of the cabin partition;

    Expansion tank on VAZ 2110-12 models is installed in a narrow niche on the driver's side

    In cars of series 2114-2115, the tank is in front of the counter

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