The best composition of the oyster mushroom substrate at home

What is cellophane? Anyone seems to know the answer to this question.

But ask a person to show what cellophane is, and he will certainly show a plastic bag.

The habit of using this name to refer to plastic film packaging has led to the fact that the words "cellophane" and "polyethylene" have become synonymous for many people.

But those who really care about the health of the planet should understand the difference between these materials.


Types of packaging used for various products:

Some types of packaging are reusable, while others are disposable. After the first use, plastic wrap, bags, blisters, boxes, cake holders and much more become unusable.

History of the origin of the paper

Before the appearance of paper, papyrus, widely known in ancient Egypt, was used for writing. From him came the English-language name of the paper. It was made from the core of the reed. In addition to him, parchment, invented in the Pergamon kingdom, was also used, which was made from specially treated animal skin. Its main advantage over papyrus was its relative durability and reusability. However, among the minuses, there was a rather high complexity of its manufacture and, accordingly, high cost.

The first paper, the predecessor of the current one, was known in ancient China. Around 105 A.D. ., Chinese dignitary Tsai Lun, invented the first industrial method of making paper. First, a pulp was prepared, which was scooped up with a special mesh shape. The water that was in this mass seeped through the holes in the grid, leaving only an even layer of future paper. As a material for paper pulp, wood and other plant material, shredded and boiled in vats with a sticky substance, were used.



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Highly efficient high-bed crop culture

Instead of burning branches, leaves and grass clippings after cleaning your garden and orchard, you could build a Hügel bed, better known as the Holzer High Bed. Simply put, it is a large (about 1.5 m) bulk mound, where branches, leaves, grass cuttings, straw, cardboard, paper, manure, compost or any other biomass that is at hand are dropped, and the top is covered with earth and vegetables are planted.

What are the advantages of tall beds

The gradual decomposition of the tree will become a consistent source of long-term plant nutrients. A large ridge can deliver a steady supply of nutrients for 20 years (or even longer if you are using only hardwood). Composting the tree also generates heat, which prolongs the growing season of the plants. The soil in such a bed is well loosened, has high aeration, and there is no need to dig it up for a long time. Logs and branches act like a sponge. They accumulate rainwater and then release it on dry days. In fact, after the first year, you may never water your tall bed (except for long-term drought). Absorbs carbon in the soil. Sepp Holzer (high bed expert) recommends choosing a small lawn and cutting the sod, digging a 30 cm deep trench and filling it with logs and branches. Then cover the logs with an upside-down sod. Cover the top with cut grass, seaweed, compost, old manure, straw, green leaves, mulch, etc. ...

From the book of permaculture by Sepp Holzer.

Comparison of traditional and tall beds.

Plants are taken from one package of seeds. on the high bed, the plants were planted two weeks later than on the left bed. Marcella

High bed in Ontario, Canada. The branches are folded 30 cm high. Greenshireecofarms. om [ad # content] __________

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What is this

Compost is a natural environmentally friendly organic fertilizer. At the heart of "cooking" is the natural mechanism of decomposition (decomposition) of organic substances - natural materials with the help of bacteria, insects and fungi.

The consistency of compost is a loose, loose brown mass with a high content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients, which is easily and naturally assimilated by plants.

Can I use it?

Straw has always been used, since those ancient times, when other fertilizers were never heard of. However, this natural raw material has both advantages and disadvantages.


  • Does not require additional investment.
  • More pleasant to use than dung.
  • Contains many organic substances, vitamins, amino acids.
  • Improves the structure of the soil, loosening it and making it water and breathable.
  • Does not require special storage conditions.
  • Saturates the soil with carbon, creating favorable conditions for plant photosynthesis.
  • Helps to retain moisture in the ground.
  • The use of several types of straw can completely restore the depleted soil.
  • As a mulch, it protects plants from burning out, inhibits the growth of weeds.

  • Often contains pest larvae, which will then impair the growth and development of cultivated plants.
  • Insufficiently decomposed raw materials cause damage to the root system of plants, as it releases harmful acids.
  • Overheating of raw materials requires additional moisture.
  • Useful substances do not enter the soil immediately, but after 2-4 years.

In terms of organic matter content, straw is several times ahead of ordinary manure.

To weaken the negative aspects of this organic matter, it must be applied annually, and immediately after harvesting, not forgetting about the dosage. If you add nitrogen, peat or chernozem to the dry material, the overheating rate will increase by 35%.

What are the types of compost

Compost is conventionally divided into several types depending on the composition and maturation period:

If you are making a small amount of the substrate at home, then most likely using the hydrothermal method or simply pouring the raw material with hot water.

The peculiarity of this process is that many plant components give, with such processing, a marriage - spots of undergrowth and the development of mold.

Therefore, it is important to select the most easy-to-use composition for the substrate.

I have a detailed article on heat treatment of small volumes on my website, link below.

By the way, if you are reading this article not on my site "Oyster-expert", then it was stolen.

Go to my site by typing its name in a search engine.

Comparison of straw and sunflower husk (husk) substrate

The easiest way to grow at home is on husks.

Husk contains less mold spores and bacteria, it is easier to process - twice as fast in time, easier to pack in bags.

Primordia appear on sunflower husks 2-4 days earlier, their nutritional value is higher than in straw.

The straw needs to be chopped on a straw chopper and hay added to it, and the husk is immediately ready for use.

Hay is needed to increase nitrogen for higher yields.

The production of packages and containers, for example, pallets for goods, is often more profitable than the creation of the goods themselves. Simple technological operations, uniform, usually inexpensive materials and a steadily growing sales market make the container manufacturing business the most demanded direction. In this article we will try to understand the pallet business, calculate the profit and profitability.

Wood pallet market overview

One of the most profitable business ideas is the production of pallets or Euro pallets. They can be made of various materials (metal, wood, plastic), but wooden pallets are the most promising. Metal and plastic pallets also exist, but their production is expensive.

Wooden pallets are actively used in various areas of production, retail and wholesale. They wear out quickly and lose their presentation, so organizations have to constantly update the fleet. Wooden pallets are historically more popular in the Russian Federation than plastic and metal counterparts, therefore they are in stable demand.

Mandatory customs check for compliance with phytosanitary standards makes it difficult to import pallets into our country, so you will have to compete exclusively with local producers. At the same time, the quality of domestic products is in no way inferior to foreign ones, since it is regulated by GOST 9557-87, which almost completely repeats UIC 435-2. This allows the products to be officially called "Euro pallets" and increases the confidence of potential customers.

Manufacturing Equipment

Include equipment costs in the business plan. If the pallet is created manually, you will need:

  • circular saw;
  • stencils;
  • nails;
  • boards.

Instead of a circular saw, you can purchase a milling machine. It will speed up production. Finished products weigh up to 30 kg. Therefore, consider how to deliver them to the warehouse and to the buyer.

To create a large business, set up an automated production line. It requires:

  • Combined machine. It is used to collect the item.
  • Stabilizer. It is used for stacking the finished product. It will save space in the warehouse.
  • Transporter. Used to simplify accumulation and storage.
  • The labeling machine is designed for the application of hot glue by the manufacturer.
  • Machines for chamfering and trimming corners.
  • Flip-flop. Used to flip the product before stacking.

Automatic wood paddon production line

This line produces about 3 pallets per minute. To save money, buy a used wooden pallet construction kit.

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