Skyscraper on Lubyanskaya Square and the Palace of Labor: what will be shown at the exhibition of VKHUTEMAS




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History of the profession

The armature profession appeared in the 19th century. It was then that experiments were carried out in Great Britain and France to strengthen concrete walls and ceilings with metal rods, houses, churches, bridges, individual structures and various objects (boats, tubs, pools, railway sleepers, pipes) were built. The new material, called "reinforced concrete", was patented in 1867.

Since then, the rapid construction of structures of varying complexity from reinforced concrete has begun. Technologies were developed for creating slabs, floors, arches, beams, from which high-strength structures were then composed. In the 20th century, reinforced concrete became the most commonly used material in construction, and it took a large number of trained craftsmen to create it.

Job Description

Let's dwell on what the fitter does. His work consists in creating a metal base, which will then be poured with concrete and, after hardening, will acquire its specific properties, highly valued for the construction of various structures:

  • durability ;
  • technology ;
  • fire resistance ;
  • high level of resistance to loads.

The algorithm for manufacturing a reinforced concrete product as a whole looks like this:

  • reinforcement preparation (selection of the required steel, its trimming, leveling or bending);
  • formwork;
  • reinforcement (drawing up and fastening frame, its installation in the right place);
  • pouring with concrete and taking care of the hardening mixture.

In Russia, an annular profile on a rod is most often used, while a sickle-shaped one is used abroad. Also, four-sided (clubs) and mixed types of reinforcing steel have now been developed. A good specialist who knows all the advantages and disadvantages of each type of profile can find a job both in our country and abroad. There are rope, wire and bar reinforcement, from which meshes and frames are made; rigid elements are also used in massive structures with a high load: angles, channels and rolled I-beams.

Rebar workers work at enterprises (precast concrete factories), where precast concrete is prepared, that is, various slabs, pipes, columns and other structures, which are then transported and used during the installation of the structure. They are also in demand on construction sites when the solution is poured directly on site (monolithic reinforced concrete). Often such craftsmen work on a rotational basis at large-scale facilities (for example, creating infrastructure for the Sochi Olympics) or in remote regions of the Far North.

Pros and cons of choosing a profession as a fitter

Among the indisputable advantages of this specialty, it is worth highlighting, first of all, the high relevance and the opportunity to start a career immediately after graduating from a technical school or university. It should be noted that many representatives of other professions, sometimes even related (architect, for example), and with honors cannot immediately find a job in their specialty.

However, when choosing this profession, it is worthwhile to understand that the psychological pressure and level of responsibility of fitters is unspeakably higher than that of other professions in the construction industry. In this case, there is no room for error in the literal sense of the word. Human lives depend on the correct calculation and careful design of the elements.

He cuts trees, takes care of bushes, gives them the desired look. Takes care of the beds, regularly loosens them. The job is similar to that of a gardener or florist. If your work is related to the design of parks, you only deal with flowers, then you are a florist. And if you solve agricultural problems related to the garden, growing berry trees, then you are a Gardener. A good professional with qualifications gets a decent salary, because gardening is a difficult job. Each plant needs certain care and knowledge, so a qualified specialist can help with this.

The profession of a gardener, who is it - a description of skills

A good specialist, who, if not he, should love plants, because this is the profession - to see all the changes that occur to them. Take proper care of them and know how to treat plants, for example, from a fungus. The gardener must know the conditions for the growth of plants, know the description of each caste, he must be able to grow seedlings, buy the right seeds, plant and observe the plants.

A gardener can be confused with a landscape designer, however, a designer does not directly deal with plants, he is indirectly related to them - after all, he deals with their design and decoration.

If you want to work as a gardener, you must love being outdoors, because regardless of the season, the employee works outside in summer and winter. In winter, he can work at the plant in the greenhouse. If you work for a private person, then perhaps in winter you will not have to work.

Description and characteristics of the profession

A gardener performs work related to caring for plants in the garden or on any green area (in a greenhouse, in a park). He cuts trees and bushes, giving them the necessary decorative shape, loosens the beds, forms hedges, flower beds, alpine hills.

The work of a flower grower and a gardener is very similar to the work of a gardener. If an employee performs work related mainly to flowers and their use for decorating parks and gardens, then he is called a florist-decorator. If his functions are related to the performance of agricultural tasks, then he is a gardener.

Gardener's salary

Knowledge, the amount of work, as well as the remoteness of the site are part of the gardener's salary. If a person serves several sections, or is a foreman, he has to command people.

To do this, you need to understand the topic of gardening very deeply, so to speak, to know all the technology from the inside: to be able to make the necessary decisions on the care of the garden, to know fertilizers and pesticides, to be able to deal with pests.

The days of scarcity are long gone. Now consumers can choose from a variety of services, goods, commercial offers. Against this background, the profession of a designer has become popular and in demand - a specialist who can draw the public's attention to a specific object. New directions regularly appear in this professional field, which expands the possibilities of its representatives. Being engaged in design, you can gain fame, achieve financial stability. The main thing is to choose your niche, get a good education and get ready for a lot of work.

Designer - who is this: description of the profession

Career guidance. Certified specialist in the problems of child involvement in learning. He has over 10 years of experience in conducting seminars, trainings and lectures with audiences of all ages.

A designer is a unique specialist who combines creative and technical aspects in his work. He cannot be called an artist, because he does not paint, but only uses drawing techniques to visualize ideas, projects and objects.

The representative of the direction acts as a constructor that changes the consumer's idea of ​​objects in his environment or the atmosphere itself. Modern designers work with real and virtual reality, implement the project description in practice or leave it at the concept level.

The object of a designer's work can be any product from all areas of human life. Unlike artists, such employees develop their ideas with a focus on their practical application. It is not enough to have an artistic taste for a profession, and drawing skills may not be useful. Design is a complex technical direction, it will not be possible to master it in a few weeks, and one talent will not be enough here.

Can you become a graphic designer?

Let's look at the profession of a graphic designer from the point of view of the layman. When a beautiful picture appears in front of our eyes, we stop looking at it and delve into its “contents”. At this moment, our attention is captured with the help of special graphic techniques.

They are invisible to the average person. He likes the picture as a whole. But the designer, like a magician, was able to place the right accents and catch our attention. Will you be able to master these skills? Of course yes!

But first, I advise you to think carefully, look inside yourself and answer three questions:

  • Are you ready to change with time?
  • Serve for the good of the client and society?
  • Understand and do what is from you do customers want?

Look for your style, see the work of other designers, create a separate folder where you will save your favorite works. Develop an artistic taste and learn to paint. I will talk about this in more detail in the article “How to become a graphic designer”.

Reconstruction of the project K. Melnikov "Building of the editorial office of the newspaper" Leningradskaya Pravda "", 1924

In 2020, 100 years have passed since the creation of VKHUTEMAS - an institute whose students determined the future of design and architecture. On February 26, the Shchusev State Museum of Architecture opens the exhibition VKHUTEMAS-100. Portholes of tomorrow's cities. Architecture faculty". Curator Polina Streltsova showed RBC Style the most daring, but, unfortunately, unrealized projects of the faculty. Sketches of these and many other projects will be presented at the exhibition.

VSNKh skyscraper on Lubyanka Square

This is the name of the laboratory work of the students of INKHUK (Institute of Artistic Culture, headed by Vasily Kandinsky, and later by Alexander Rodchenko). Under Rodchenko, an experimental group of architects was created, which included Nikolai Ladovsky and Vladimir Krinsky. In 1922, Ladovsky took the initiative to build the world's first skyscraper.

The dispute over primacy in this regard does not subside to this day: leading architects designed high-rise buildings in different parts of the world, and at one point they seemed to burst through - for example, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe presented a project for a skyscraper for the central streets of Berlin Friedrichstrasse, which received huge publicity. The public saw the skyscraper of Ladovsky and Krinsky only in 1926, when the project was published in the first and only journal of rationalists "Osnova". It was an example of a benchmark multifunctional building with office space, hotel, department store and cinema. A vertically elongated building with repeating rows of windows, it would seem, should inspire boredom, but Vladimir Krinsky came up with a grid of glass multi-level facades, an inclined frame structure on the lower tier, awnings, cantilever ledges - the most complex plastic solution. In addition, the windows decreased with the number of storeys, which emphasized the perspective of the building.

Palace of Labor on the site of the Moscow Hotel

In the same 1922, the Moscow Architectural Society (MAO) announced a competition for a meeting building designed according to the rules of the new architecture. Despite the condition, the rather traditionalist project of Noah Trotsky won (since the jury was attended by traditionalists - Fyodor Shekhtel, Ilya Mashkov, and Alexey Shchusev was chaired).

A total of 47 projects participated in the competition, seven of which were awarded. Alexey Shchusev advocated awarding the victory to the Vesnin brothers, as a result their project - the first building in the style of constructivism - took third place. The architects opened the world to naked structures, simple geometric volumes, decorative elements in the form of stretch marks, antennas and radio masts. The Vesnins' Palace of Labor was a 17-storey building with an elliptical hall for 10 thousand people and an adjoining prismatic tower with administrative premises. The two spaces were connected by a conventional gallery - a parallelepiped on the upper tier with the Mossovet hall, which could accommodate another 2,000 people. Under the parallelepiped there was a passage for cars connecting Revolution Square with Okhotny Ryad. The building created an unprecedented sensation - this is how constructivism and the avant-garde marched around the world.

The exhibition at the Shchusev Museum, among other things, will discuss how Alexander Vesnin came to constructivism through non-objective painting and work in the theater. His brothers Leonid and Victor were more practitioners, while the innovation came from Alexander.

A. ., V.., L. Vesnins. Palace of Labor on Okhotny Ryad, competition project, 1923. Pencil on paper

The building of the Leningradskaya Pravda newspaper at the corner of Tverskaya Street and Pushkinskaya Square

In 1924, the architects were given an islet of six by six squares next to the Passionate Monastery in order to think over the draft of the editorial board. The editorial building was supposed to be multifunctional: the first floor was reserved for a newsstand, the second was a reading room, the third floor was a general office, and the fourth and fifth floors were the editorial office. Three projects took part in the competition: the Vesnin brothers, Ilya Golosov and Konstantin Melnikov. Melnikov's project turned out to be the most daring and innovative - Konstantin Stepanovich was an adherent of kinetic, mobile architecture. According to his idea, the editorial office of Leningradskaya Pravda was to be located in a five-storey cylindrical building with a staircase in the middle and floors revolving around it like the blades of a helicopter.

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