How to teach a child to speak? We develop speech for up to a year

About gray geese, white-fronted geese, bean goose and geese

Currently, sport hunting for geese is a hobby for millions of people in many countries of the world. A civilized hunter must know the rules of hunting in his region and be able to distinguish between protected species of geese and those for which hunting is permitted.

Gray geese, white-fronted geese and bean geese belong to the genus Anser of the family of duck Anatidae of the order Anseriformes.

Gray Goose (Anser Anser)

Distinctive features. Large goose. The body length reaches 90 cm, the wingspan is up to 1.5 - 1.7 meters. The weight of adult males in autumn reaches 3.5 - 5 kg. Females are slightly smaller. The color of the plumage is light gray. In sexually mature birds, the goiter and abdomen are covered with small black transverse streaks. The beak is solid pink with a white claw at the end. Paws are red-pink. The eyes are light brown. The voice is harsh, cackling, reminiscent of the sounds made by domestic geese. The flight of gray geese is fast; during long-distance flights they fly high, often lining up in a wedge. They usually do not mix with other types of geese.

Habitat. It mainly lives in the southern half of Russia. Especially readily nests on large lakes with reed beds, in river deltas, in floodplains and estuaries. The main livestock is concentrated in the Volga delta, Kazakhstan, Western Siberia. Breeds irregularly in the European part. Prefers biotopes of the forest-steppe and steppe zones. Winters in Azerbaijan, in the south of Ukraine, in the republics of Central Asia, as well as in Western Europe, South and Southeast Asia. The number, in recent years, has stabilized and, according to some sources, reaches up to 150 thousand individuals.

White-fronted Goose (Anser Albifrons)

Distinctive features. The most numerous species of our geese. Body length 60 - 90 cm, wingspan up to 1.5 meters. The weight of adult males in autumn reaches 2.5 - 3 kg. The color of the plumage of an adult bird is mainly gray, lighter below, the undertail is white. On the forehead there is a white spot surrounded by a dark border. Sexually mature birds have large transverse black streaks on their belly. The beak is 40 - 55 mm long, pinkish, with a white claw at the end, the legs are orange. Young birds have no white spot on the forehead and there are no dark streaks on the belly. Unlike other species of geese, the tail of the white-fronted goose protrudes from under the ends of folded wings. The male's voice is high, sharp, shrill, two or three-syllable, the female is dominated by low-frequency components.

Habitat. The main centers of concentration of white-fronted geese on nesting sites are located on the Southern Island of Novaya Zemlya, in the north of Yamal, Western Taimyr, on some Arctic islands and on the mainland tundra and forest-tundra. They prefer relatively dry river valleys, slopes of lake basins. Often they resort to the protection of feathered predators by arranging their settlements near the nests of buzzards and peregrine falcons. They hibernate in Azerbaijan, Central Asia, in the south of Ukraine, in the countries of Western Europe, Anterior and Southeast Asia.

Bean Geese

Shark retrotest: the first Bavarian

Startled, Stas opened his eyes and looked at his watch - it was thirty-two minutes past seven.

"Get up, or lie down for ten to fifteen minutes? No, it's time."

Stas went to bed rather late, and woke up several times during the night - this often happens to him when he is very worried, expecting a difficult day ahead.

"Or maybe quit? - a thought flashed through my still quite sluggish, half-asleep brain. - It's not too late to take and abandon what was planned? After all, no one will know! Well, almost no one. Vitka something a lie - he is a simple man, he will immediately believe in any fable. "

-No! - Stas said out loud, - no reversals. To end. I have nothing to lose.

My eyes were closing, and I really didn’t want to get up, but the decision was made. Abruptly throwing back the blanket, Stas jumped out of bed and took dumbbells in his hands. For some reason, the cold metal items seemed unbearably heavy, and I wanted to unclench my fingers and let them out of my hands. Stas, gritting his teeth, stubbornly continued to squeeze out the usual hundred. Closing his eyes, he listlessly counted the hard-to-get sets.

- Ninety eight. Ninety nine. Hundred. Uh-uh-uh. Done. Now wash, shave and have breakfast.

Once again glancing at his watch and making sure that there is still time, Stas took his guitar off the wall and sat down on the edge of the sofa. A musical instrument has recently appeared in his house, and no one knew about it yet. Having run over the strings, Stas struck down with force with four fingers of his right hand, going from busting to fighting. The enchanting ringing of strings, caressing the ear, soothed his nerves, stretched like a bowstring, and immersed him in such a pleasant, lulling world of dreams. He did not know a single melody, preferring to simply experiment, alternately taking familiar chords and choosing a fight according to the current mood. The pads of the fingers of the left hand ached pleasantly, touching the strings and clamping them at the necessary frets, and the muscles of the right hand, being under moderate but constant tension, ached just as pleasantly - they had not yet had time to completely relax after the morning exercises.

Eyes periodically tried to close, but not with the same persistence. Exercise and a cold shower did their job - the conquered drowsiness was rapidly receding.

Already standing on the threshold and closing the front door, Stas once again thought that there is still an opportunity to abandon his plans, not to risk, leaving everything as it is. The paths for a painless retreat are still open, but after an hour there will be no such opportunity.

"I put everything I have on the line. If something goes wrong, I will die. You can still refuse, you can jump off. No one will know, no one will blame cowardice. And everything will remain as it is. "

Stas stopped. It was quite quiet outside; only somewhere in the distance a dog was barely audible barking, and birds were singing in the trees. Spring confidently came into its own: the buds swelled rapidly, the first grass was breaking through. Some trees were already in full bloom. From the clear, light blue sky, the welcoming April sun shone, so tenderly and affectionately tickling the face, neck and arms.

Speech is the highest mental function. It entirely depends on the level of development of the central nervous system of a person. It is not only a means of communication, but also the basis of thinking. A child with undeveloped speech cannot fully analyze and classify his impressions, make generalizations and conclusions about the world around him. It is not without reason that the majority of parents and specialists attach such importance to the development of the speech of preschool children: doctors, defectologists, speech therapists, teachers, psychologists.

The ability to clearly express their thoughts depends on whether the child can freely and naturally communicate with others. Children with developed speech actively play and communicate with their peers, contact adults, share their impressions. A child who realizes that his speech is not similar to the speech of his peers may begin to be ashamed of communicating with children and adults, avoid playing together, and be afraid that they will laugh at him.

To find out whether a one-year-old baby is developing correctly, you need to know what is the norm at the age from birth to one year, and what is pathology, how you can stimulate his speech development on your own.

Development of speech in the first days of a baby's life - screaming, involuntary sounds

From the very first days of life, the baby exercises your vocal apparatus. These exercises include screaming, involuntary sounds (by the end of the first month of life, they can acquire emotional connotations). Of course, his first vocal experiments are not speech, since they are reflexive in nature, but they have a huge impact on the subsequent development of speech. They allow you to establish associations between the child's auditory perception and the nerve centers of speech. Later, these associations will lead to the appearance of imitative speech. In other words, the baby makes involuntary sounds, listens to them and gradually trains to control his organ of speech so that it turns out to pronounce the sound arbitrarily.

What should parents do? In addition to the fact that the baby listens to his own voice, he also listens with pleasure to adults. Therefore, it is so important to sing to the child, to have the first conversations with him, telling about everything around.

Physiological features of a baby in months

The weight of a child at 6 months is on average 7.2-7.9 kg,

and the baby's height is 65-67 cm.

Over the past month, the baby will gain about 600 grams more and grow by 1.5-2 centimeters. By the age of six months, the rate at which babies gain weight slows down. Boys and girls develop in different ways, which becomes noticeable already at six-month-old crumbs. They differ in average weight and height: girls are often slightly smaller than boys. lukh. The kid hears well if the sound source is at a distance of no more than 6-6.5 meters from him. He already responds to his name, distinguishes the vocal intonations of those who speak to him. The kid responds with great joy to his mother's voice. The child is sensitive to sounds, turns his head to its source. He distinguishes the noise of footsteps, the sound of a door opening, the murmur of water. In addition, he is able to hear whispers, slight rustling and other quiet sounds.

Vision. At 6 months, the development of the visual centers of the brain of a six-month-old baby has made significant progress. The child sees objects more clearly than before, follows moving objects with a faster and more accurate gaze. He already distinguishes all colors well, visual acuity is improving. Better coordination between eyes and hands allows you to quickly find an object, grab it and drag it into your mouth.

Speech skills. The kid is even more active and longer than before he walks, and in his babbling the consonant sounds a-ma, ba-ba, pa, etc. clearly slip through. At 6 months, the child's speech reactions are actively formed and developed. That is, he confidently associates the subject with its sounded name.

Pinata is a great opportunity to make the holiday even brighter and more fun. The toy box is just beginning to gain popularity in Russia, but needlewomen have already come up with many techniques for how to make it with their own hands. Experienced craftswomen use not only traditional materials for creating papier-mâché, but also ceramics and fabrics.

What is Pinata

This is a toy with a hollow interior. It does not "live" for long - it is filled with small souvenirs, sweets, confetti and smashed during the holiday. According to some historical data, the homeland of the piñata is Spain or Italy, and Chinese lanterns became its prototype. But some sources say that it was invented in Mexico. The reason for this may be the extraordinary popularity of such a surprise toy on Mexican holidays.

The first mention of piñata in European chronicles dates back to the 13th century. Marco Polo, who returned from China at that time, brought the toy and told about the way to use it. He told the Italians about the Chinese lanterns, about the funny figurines of animals that were filled with plant seeds and smashed during the New Year celebrations. It was the traveler's stories that became the reason for the Europeans to introduce this unusual entertainment into their culture.

In just over 100 years, new fun spread throughout Europe, in each country it was endowed with a special meaning. For example, in Spain, the role of piñata was played by clay pots filled with sweets. They became a symbol of Great Lent. In Mexico, they were made with their own hands already in the form of a star. And the sweets with which the toy was filled personified God's grace, a kind of overcoming of sins, cleansing. The ability to easily break a vessel, whatever it is made of, has become a symbol of success.

At home, you can make such a decoration of any type. The shape and size depend on skills in needlework, your own imagination, desire to create, type, theme of the event. Craftswomen of any level create their own piñatas in the form

  • figures of animals - donkeys, cats, bunnies, unicorns, dogs;
  • geometric shapes - cubes, cones, drops, stars, balls;
  • volumetric symbols - numbers, letters;
  • shapes in the form of berries or fruits - strawberry, apple, banana, huge pineapple;
  • symbolic shapes - heart, house, moon, sun ...

What to fill

It is important to understand that the piñata breaks, its content crumbles. Do not use heavy, sharp objects.

  • wrapped sweets - nuts, sweets, better caramels or waffle-chocolate;
  • serpentine, confetti - to add entertainment;
  • small, soft souvenirs, toys;
  • gifts - rubber bands, cars, bracelets, hairpins, toy soldiers.

There should not be a lot of filler so that the toy does not fall apart prematurely under its weight. For the smallest, you can arrange a craft with a lid and a string attached to it. You will not have to break the souvenir, the risk of injury will be excluded.

Manufacturing methods in stages

You can make such a surprise with your own hands from cardboard, a balloon using papier-mâché technology and in other ways.

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