Greetings, master! If you are reading these lines, then you have had a difficult task - to make repairs. But it will not be easy for others, those who do not understand anything about it. And for you who have studied the materials of this site and who have learned the repair to the highest degree, this business will be easy, interesting and exciting!
First of all, you need to remember the golden rule: any repair should be started "slowly". This means, put aside all the construction tools far away, and take a pencil and paper in your hands and write in great detail everything that you want to do, starting from the ceiling and ending with the floor for each room separately.
Think about what materials you will use, how much it will cost, whether there will be enough funds, and make an estimate of the repair. When purchasing building material, you need to know that at least 10% should be added to all your calculations for errors and waste.
Practice shows that no one has yet been able to make calculations with an accuracy of a centimeter, and the need to buy additional materials after the start of the repair leads to additional material losses. This is at best, sometimes it happens that just such materials are no longer on sale, then you will have to re-buy the entire batch, which, as you understand, significantly affects the cost.
And here are some more rules and tips for DIY apartment renovation:
Cases are not uncommon when, for various reasons, even without extensive experience in performing repair work, you have to do it yourself. And in this case, there is nothing to worry about if you follow some of the tips.
There are two proverbs that people put together in time for our occasion.
First: "they mold not holy pots"
To preserve the appearance and consumer properties of goods, manufacturers pack them in containers of different types, depending on their size and state of aggregation. In the course of the activity of manufacturing enterprises, gastronomic establishments, retail chains, a huge amount of waste packaging is formed.
In accordance with current legislation, it is prohibited to dispose of it in landfills or other places. If representatives of the federal service in the field of environmental management reveal the fact of negligent handling of the used packaging, they will impose a large fine. The only way to legally dispose of this waste is to recycle the packaging of the goods.
Plastic recycling methods
Today we have the opportunity to rely on the advanced Western experience, which offers several ways to recycle plastic waste for recycling.
Of all the above methods, the most popular is the remelting technology, also known as granulation or tableting.
Before the appearance of paper, papyrus, widely known in ancient Egypt, was used for writing. From him came the English-language name of the paper. It was made from the core of the reed. In addition to him, parchment, invented in the Pergamon kingdom, was also used, which was made from specially treated animal skin. Its main advantage over papyrus was its relative durability and reusability. However, among the minuses, there was a rather high complexity of its manufacture and, accordingly, high cost.
The first paper, the predecessor of the current one, was known in ancient China. Around 105 A.D. ., Chinese dignitary Tsai Lun, invented the first industrial method of making paper. First, a pulp was prepared, which was scooped up with a special mesh shape. The water that was in this mass seeped through the holes in the grid, leaving only an even layer of future paper. As a material for paper pulp, wood and other plant material, shredded and boiled in vats with a sticky substance, were used.
All plastics are based on polymers (compounds with high molecular weight and consisting of monomers). Recyclability of plastics depends on the type of raw material from which the plastic product is made. Today there are many types of plastic, which, however, can be grouped into two large groups:
It is impossible to recycle the second type of plastics at home, because. thermosetting plastic does not lend itself to re-melting (in some cases, in factories, it is shredded and used as a filler). Thermoplastics, on the other hand, melt when heated without losing their initial properties and, when cooled, regain their original shape. That is why “at home” it is possible to process only thermoplastic plastics with the help of special, but “simple” equipment and to obtain new useful products and materials from such plastic waste. The most common recyclable raw materials are PET bottles and other plastic containers.
Each plastic is unique in its own way, from structure to disposal. On our website, exhaustive articles have been written about each type of plastic as a waste, you can read them, which can be read using the following links: low-pressure polyethylene, high-pressure polyethylene, plastic film, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polycarbonate.
To understand what kind of plastic a product is made of, you need to pay attention to the markings on its surface (often on the bottom). It has the shape of a triangle, inside which there is a number corresponding to the type of polymer. Also, under the triangle, they put the letter designation of the type of plastic. We recommend reading an interesting article about the labeling of all types of packaging with recycling signs.
I took what was in the garden, you can take any grate. We will cut off everything to size, so that there is nothing superfluous, along the internal grooves that we made in advance. Well, the grille fits perfectly, but so far it is not fixed by anything, so I will fasten it with the same self-tapping screws. Four is enough. There is no need for special strength, and in the future it is not necessary to remove the grille, you do not need to make a super mount. Fine. Everything is attached. You can move on to the next stage. You need to make a frame for the plastic on top. There is a perfect piece of chipboard, just cut it in half and the frames are ready.
Now you need to cut a hole in each frame from above. Let's draw a square without exact measurements. Cut with a circular saw or jigsaw. The frame is ready.
Let's make the second one using the first frame as a template.
Now let's fasten the frames with bolts, having pre-drilled a hole.
Make a hole in the side wall for the vacuum cleaner tube. We apply a crown on wood.
About molding and molding of plastic parts from 6 minutes.
Waste paper collection in our country has gone through several stages: weekly delivery in schools, organizations; after the inhabitants of the country decided to raise this feat by creating Stimul stores /. Here, cardboard, paper, and also old woven things were exchanged for books or other values of the end of the era of the country of the Unions.
Today, GOST 10700-97 is applied to the collection of all types of waste paper, which introduces a sorting qualification for this type of secondary raw materials, only three groups A, B, C.
However, despite this, in the waste paper prima points located within the city: schools, offices, the price for all types of paper or cardboard raw materials is set on average and ultimately the same. Although after the organization carries out the collection of waste paper or immediately before that, its employees can sort the goods into three types of waste paper, respectively, pack it and hand over some types at a higher price.
It includes the following brands of waste paper: MS-1A, MS-2A, MS-3A, MS-4A.
The most expensive waste paper is:
White paper scraps - high grade waste paper
This category is of the highest quality of papers and newspaper editions do not fall into it, even on white, glossy sheets.
To facilitate the selection of raw materials, the state standardization system has developed the labeling of paper waste. So, according to GOST 10700-97, there are 13 brands of waste paper in Russia.
Depending on the quality of raw materials, it is customary to divide waste paper into 3 main groups:
Depending on the composition, collection sites, color and ability to dissolve, the waste paper of each of the listed groups corresponds to the brands. The marking of each brand begins with the letters MC, then the serial number and group are indicated.
Toilet paper is a basic commodity, so the demand for it is constant, even during economic crises. If you use modern technologies, you can produce not only the simplest (single-layer) paper, but also two- and three-layer, with a cardboard and plastic sleeve, add embossing, relief or flavor.
In terms of technology, the production of kitchen towels, sanitary and table napkins practically does not differ from the technology of production of toilet paper, and this allows us to make the range even wider.
Successful implementation of business in Yamal
Due to the fact that almost all the technology for the production of toilet paper is based on the use of semi-automatic machines, you need to look for a room for a workshop to be spacious and located either on the ground floor or in the basement. Also, the room must have good ventilation and heat, since people will work at the machines, and the lack of heating in winter can cause frequent illnesses.
Basic requirements for the workshop:
After the premises are selected, it is necessary to establish business contacts with its owner and try to conclude a preliminary lease agreement.
Why preliminary? At the stage of choosing a premises, a future entrepreneur does not yet have the right to conduct business, since as an enterprise he has not yet been registered by the state, but it is quite appropriate to draw up preliminary agreements, from which it will be obvious that entrepreneurial activities in the listed territories will be carried out only after state registration.