Diamond is the most expensive and beautiful noble stone. A diamond is a cut diamond that shines in full force. Both processed and unprocessed stones have healing and magical properties that have been known since ancient times.
But this mineral is famous not only for this. It has an unusual origin, mining methods and very interesting physical and chemical characteristics. Among the stones, it is the hardest, but fragile. This nugget is colorless, but shimmers in many shades.
Diamond is the true king of precious stones. But he received recognition only after they learned to cut it in the 15th century.
The mineral got its name from the Arabic word "almas", which translates as "the hardest". Each nation called this nugget in its own way, but all the names had similar meanings - "indestructible", "solid", "eternal".
The Greeks called him "Adamas", the Romans - "Diamond", the British - "Diamond". In the Russian language, the designation of the gem came from the Turkic "al mass".
Like many gems, the diamond began its historical journey from the treasures of Indian rulers. In India, this stone was mined, but they did not know how to cut because of the superhardness of the nugget. Diamond has become a symbol of the firmness and inviolability of power among the Hindus.
When Alexander the Great brought some of these gems from the Indian campaign, Europe and the Middle East got acquainted with diamond nuggets.
A diamond gained its true brilliance and glory after it turned into a diamond after being cut. Learned how to cut super-hard stone in Flanders. There, after a while, they developed a cut on 57 facets, and the outfits of gentlemen and ladies of the Rococo era sparkled with diamonds. Since then, the diamond has become the most valuable gem available to few.
Most scientists believe that diamond nuggets form in the mantle that covers the core of the Earth. The condition for their formation from carbon is mega-high pressure (over 50,000 atmospheres!) And a very high temperature.
Naturally occurring types of diamonds:
This story began many years ago. More precisely, a few billion years ago, when gases of hot magma from the very heart of our planet burst outward, leaving an unusual trail in the form of a tube - from the depths to the surface. Then our planet was restless, young, had an explosive character and was still taking shape. But first things first ...
The small town of Kimberley in South Africa is considered the country's diamond capital. It was here that the first South African diamonds were discovered. According to legend, they were found by the children of a shepherd - the first stone weighed just over 21 carats. The diamond was named "Eureka!" - because it was a discovery that turned the entire economy of the country.
Carat is a non-systemic unit of mass equal to 200 mg (0.2 grams). It is used in jewelry to express the mass of precious stones and pearls.
The second large diamond was also found by the children - the children of the farmer. It was a real miracle: a large yellow diamond weighing more than 83 carats was named the "Star of South Africa". Both diamonds are now in the museum.
Since then, a real pilgrimage of diamond seekers and gold prospectors began in Kimberley, who dug all the valleys of the Vaal and Orange rivers in search of treasures. And they found them! Following adventurers of all stripes, geologists came to Kimberley. They turned their attention to the giant Big Hole diamond mine, which became the object of their study.
It was then that scientists managed to figure out the relationship between kimberlite pipes and diamonds. By the way, this was not the only "diamond pipe" in the vicinity of Kimberley. But only the "Big Hole" was dug by hand. All others have already been developed with the help of machines.
A kimberlite pipe can be compared to a chimney or gigantic well. Outwardly, "diamond tubes" resemble a funnel: they are wider towards the surface of the earth and narrow, going deeper. In fact, it is a kind of ancient volcano, the terrestrial part of which is completely destroyed due to erosion processes. Therefore, finding the pipe is not easy.
Despite the fact that scientists have been studying kimberlite pipes for many decades, the number of mysteries does not decrease every year. On the contrary: the more we know about them, the more "diamond pipes" surprise scientists.