The Nobel Prize in Economics is awarded both for theoretical achievements and applied solutions: for example, for finding an effective solution to the problem of climate change or fighting poverty. Economists are interested in a wide range of phenomena and use specific optics to take a different look at familiar problems. In the book “The Undercover Economist. Why traffic jams occur, coffee is expensive and it’s impossible to find a good used car ”(Mann, Ivanov and Ferber Publishing House), translated into Russian by Elizaveta Ponomareva, English economist Tim Harford talks about various concepts of economics and how they affect everyday a life. N + 1 invites its readers to read a passage on how drivers influence those around them, why they don't compensate for the harm that cars cause to others, and what can be done to change the current situation.
In the previous chapter, we learned that in a world of ideal markets, things work out well. They are absolutely effective and produce excellent results, aside from the distribution problem. Also, thanks to the handicap theorem, it became clear that any complaints about allocation can be prevented from the outset. Hurrah! All problems have been resolved, or at least those related to the distribution of goods and services.
Great news, but why then did I spend two hours in traffic this morning? The drivers were wasting their time sitting in stuck cars. We could all take buses or use car sharing * and get to our destination in fifteen minutes. What happened to the ideal market? Certainly road traffic does not fit this definition. But it can nevertheless become so.
Well-functioning economies of ideal markets are uninteresting and unrealistic. But the concept of the ideal market offers such a convenient starting point that it is much easier for economists to kick off and figure out why the market is not working than to start from scratch and try to figure out how to make it work. This method of understanding the world will lead us to solving the problems of road traffic.
I am a happy person, but there are things that make me mad (and therefore want to change them). For example, he is outraged by the need to update the software of my computer every few years, laying out a tidy sum for it. There is still no certainty that doctors are prescribing medicines that are suitable for me. And I want to see the streets of London clean, moreover, without traffic jams.
These particular but very common problems are the three main reasons why markets fail to meet the expectations we discussed in Chapter 3. In Chapter 2, we read that markets do not do well with the power of scarcity ... The main trouble with software is that the market is dominated by a single company, Microsoft. She has tremendous power and can charge high prices. Markets also fail to perform well when information is lacking for decision makers. When I lived in Washington, I had no idea if my doctor was doing the right thing. He did not need to worry about the cost of treatment, and my insurance company tried not to pay for it, since it does not have all the necessary information. (We’ll look at health care in Chapter 5.) Finally, markets cannot work well when some people make decisions that affect others. For example, when a driver buys gasoline at a gas station, it is very good for him and for the gas station, but other drivers, their passengers and local employees have to breathe carbon dioxide.
There are three major issues called market bugs. The first is the power of scarcity, discussed in Chapters 1 and 2. The second is the lack of information, which we will look at in Chapter 5. And the third (this is the topic of this chapter) - decisions that have an impact on others. Economists use the term "externalities" because their influence goes beyond the initial action, such as buying gasoline. It doesn't matter whether the power of scarcity has worked, there is not enough information, or external factors have come into play - when the economy does not live up to the ideals of the "world of truth", expect trouble.
How drivers influence those around London, Washington, Tokyo, Paris, Los Angeles, Bangkok and any major city is full of cars, buses, trucks. All this transport seriously spoils the life of innocent townspeople, because it significantly pollutes the air. I admit that the current state of the atmosphere in London is not nearly as bad as the "great stench" ** of the 1850s, during which tens of thousands of people died of cholera. Still, the pollution caused by traffic is not nonsense: thousands of people die because so many others want to travel. At least 7,000 UK residents die prematurely every year due to vehicle emissions. This is a little more than one person in 10 thousand. The US Environmental Protection Agency found that 15,000 people die in this country due to particulate matter emitted by diesel engines. In cities like London, the cost of traffic jams on delays makes the situation even worse - you just have to think about the hours spent in these traffic jams. In fact, these are lost hours of a productive and happy life. Add in noise, accidents, and the “barrier effect” that prevents people, especially children, from walking from school to a store or even meeting their neighbors across the street.
People are not stupid at all: surely everyone who drives a car gets some benefit from driving. But he does it at the expense of those around him: other drivers stuck in traffic, parents who cannot let their children go to school alone, pedestrians running across the street at risk to their lives, because they are tired of waiting for the green light to turn on. Office workers also suffer as they are unable to open their windows even in hot summer - noisy!
Since every driver gets into a car automatically makes other people unhappy, the free market cannot solve the problem of transportation. External factors of congestion and pollution are serious distortions of the "world of truth." In this world, every selfish deed is for the common good. I, as a complete egoist, buy underwear because I want to, but at the same time I direct resources into the hands of underwear manufacturers and do no harm to anyone. The staff of Chinese factories that sew linen are selfishly looking for better jobs, while manufacturers are looking for better employees. All this leads to a common benefit: goods are produced only when people want to buy them. They are made only by the most suitable people for the job. Selfishness is placed at the service of the common good.
Good evening, dear Lawyers and just readers of my story. As a family, we moved to Nizhny Novgorod, while we do not have our own housing and we live in a rented apartment. We do not have registration in the Nizhny Novgorod region, it is permanent in the Kirov region. The child goes to kindergarten and we were denied compensation of 20% for the first child, referring to the fact that there was no registration. But in the summer, the kindergarten was renovated in a group and the children attended another kindergarten, in which we were paid compensation. To my question, “what about the registration?”, I was told that it is not required. Now in our garden they are asking to write a waiver of compensation, referring to the residence permit and the decree of the government of the Nizhny Novgorod region. Are there any knowledgeable people among you, or maybe someone has come across this? How to deal with this situation?
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Today my wife went to the next meeting in the kindergarten. She came very angry. I wrote a story, I spread it on her behalf.
My daughter goes to the preparatory group. The first meeting was back in September. The parents' committee was chosen on it, which immediately decided: to hand over the money. So right off the bat. The fees were as follows:
1. 20 rubles for water for a cooler.
2. 250 rubles for workbooks to prepare for school.
Everything seems to be clear, and the amount is small. Okay, passed. It got warmer in the group, and then the heating was turned on. However, I didn’t notice water in the cooler. Nobody has bought workbooks yet.
Today I would like to talk about those cars that will leave the market in 2021, and not which have already left it. In general, the auto market is very complex and it is difficult to predict which car will become popular and which will not, so auto manufacturers take great risks.
We simply do not notice how some models disappear from the roads, some become popular, this is an ordinary cycle. In 2020-2021, a number of cars left the market, which I will now talk about.
The most practical and reliable car. Dealers have suspended sales of the new version of Mazda due to low demand and high competition from other brands, one of which is Toyota. At the moment, this sedan can only be bought by hand, nothing else.
But this is not a reason to worry, since everything leaves and comes, and the new Mazda CX will replace the three-ruble note. Of course, this car was a favorite for many, but competitors left no chance. It is simply not profitable for a dealer to sell it. since the price runs towards the cost price.
Stylish and tall car that is leaving due to very very low demand. On the roads, this car is difficult to find, such a feeling. that they simply do not exist, although some of the cars were sold.
If I'm not mistaken, about 350 cars were bought and this is very little. A competitor, one of them, Nissan sells in the thousands, and Renault is only 350. Perhaps this car will go away for a while, so to speak, until better times. You can't find a car on the official website of the company, now you can only take it from your hands.
Volkswagen has released a very strange car, as for me, I have never seen it in city traffic, perhaps somewhere in Moscow it is, but not in small towns. Over the entire period of our stay in our market, a little more than 300 hundred cars have been sold, and this is not enough, as you understand.
In February, Paper selected 14 new St. Petersburg cafes, bars and restaurants, found out what dishes are prepared there, whether the establishments have a delivery service and what visitors and experts say about them. Read about a craft beer bar, a specialty coffee shop with grains from Europe, and several new Italian establishments.
The coronavirus pandemic continues in St. Petersburg. "Paper" asks you not to forget about precautions.
On Nevsky Prospekt - in the house where the bookstore and the publishing house of Alexander Smirdin used to work - a two-story restaurant space “Publishing House” was opened. Now it consists of a restaurant and a cafe with breakfasts and desserts from the pastry chef Anton Bagat. The restaurant's kitchen was headed by chef Dmitry Muravyov, who focused on Spanish and Pan-Asian dishes on the menu. In the spring, the Publishing House will be expanded: there will be another hall, a seafood bar, a children's room and a separate living room for large dinners.
140 ₽ - oxtail tapas
150 ₽ - imperial oyster
restaurant journalist and vegan restaurant festival organizer
- The restaurant on the second floor has windows to Kazan, a real restored fireplace and almost like in the jungle. The project is large-scale, 900 square meters on both floors; another hall is coming, with the same view of the Nevsky. At the meal stands a resident of St. Petersburg Dmitry Muravyov, who has worked for the last five years in Yalta; food for Spanish and Asian reasons.
In a small room at the entrance to the Salone Pasta & Bar, the Nonino Secret Room was opened. The space is a small tasting room serving Italian grappa-based cocktails and snacks. The team, led by Salone chef Bagration Gagua, has developed eight drinks based on Italian distillates: guests are offered three drinks, a digestif and two snacks. The room is open for sessions, the duration of the visit is about an hour, you need to book places in advance.
3500 ₽ - tasting set
editor of the paper lifestyle
- Chamber space with tastings of grappa-based cocktails from the Italian family Nonino. In spirit, this establishment in the establishment is a speakeasy bar: a small room for five to ten guests, dim lights, neon lights and two phantasmagoric chandeliers behind the bar. In fact, there is nothing particularly secret in the Nonino Secret Room: the room is open in the evenings from Thursday to Sunday (the first session is at 18:00). The only limitation is the need for an appointment; getting inside without booking will not work.