The Egyptians were not special masters in terms of executions and torture, and the "highest measure of social protection" they considered ingenuous feeding to crocodiles. However, the robbers of the royal tombs were either burned or impaled. In the first case, it was understood that with the destruction of the criminal's body in the flame, he would no longer be able to be reborn in the afterlife, in the second - that his soul would be tightly chained to the place of death. However, from some time on, the prospects of such terrible punishment did not work anymore. But where, then, are the legends about the curses of the pharaohs?
The correct answer can be found in a papyrus from the 11th century BC, which is the testimony of a robber named Amenpanufer on trial. The defendant tells how he and his companions discovered the pyramid of Pharaoh Sobekemsaf, which had never been robbed by anyone, entered, went down into the underground chambers and found gold in the farthest part of the tomb, as well as the mummy of the lord and his wife, Queen Nubhaas. The robbers stripped gold, silver and precious stones from richly inlaid coffins, and then jewelry from the mummies themselves. They set fire to the wooden coffins, and the convict does not mention what happened to the mummies themselves. With rich booty, the robbers arrived in the capital of Thebes, where, apparently, on a denunciation, Amenpanufer was arrested and imprisoned. He just got out: “I took twenty gold coins, my share, and gave them to the scribe Thebes Khemop. He let me go and I returned to my colleagues. They compensated me for my lost share. That is why plundering tombs became a habit for me. " True, judging by the papyrus, justice nevertheless got to him, but who knows: maybe he again managed to pay off? There are quite a few documents confirming not just individual facts of corruption, but the existence of a full-fledged system, when not only the marauders themselves, but also the priests who informed them about the burial places, as well as the law enforcement officers who covered the criminals, earned money from plundering tombs. We can say that the pharaohs themselves contributed to the folding of such a system. Possessing absolute power, during their lifetime they were equated with the gods, but after death the treasures from their tombs were often withdrawn by their successors in difficulty. Naturally, the subjects began to suspect that if during their lifetime their rulers really had some kind of power, then after their death they could not be particularly on ceremony with them. And they did not stand on ceremony ... It got to the point that mummies were used ... for illumination instead of torches, in order to better examine the premises in search of the most valuable. In many cases, in addition to the mummies thrown out of the sarcophagi, archaeologists found in the tombs comic scenes with spaced figures of animals, which seemed to chat among themselves, and sometimes even made love. And you can't say that these robbers were atheists. They simply believed that the dead Pharaoh is no longer a god, which means that he is not dangerous. And even formidable curses, like those carved on the walls in the pyramid of Amenhotep III, could not frighten them. The authors of the spell warned the thief that he would “lose his earthly statuses and honors, he would be burned in a furnace, thrown into the sea, would not have successors, would not receive his own tomb or burial offerings, and his body would decompose as he would starve without food, and his bones will turn to dust. "
The corridors in the tombs were laid according to the principles of labyrinths, sharp spikes were installed on the floor in the passages, pit traps were arranged, the doors to the cells were supplied with the most complicated locks. There are different opinions about the effectiveness of these traps. For example, Emily Teeter, an expert on Egyptian and Nubian antiquities at the University of Chicago, stated in an interview: “I am very sorry to report, but there is nothing insidious about ancient Egyptian tombs. Hollywood has transformed standard architectural features such as grates, shafts and sand filling chambers into horror objects. " On the other hand, the remains of robbers with rotted clothes were often found in tombs. Having stepped on a plate fixed on the axis, the attacker fell down, and the overturned plate was installed in its previous position, walled up him alive. One of the corpses had their hands cut off: apparently, when the sarcophagus was opened, a mechanism triggered, bringing down the lid on his limbs with terrible force. The surviving marauders passed on their experience to other generations. Trap wells were overcome, breaking through bypass tunnels, and rollers and logs were placed under vertically collapsing slabs, walled-up passages were broken with battering logs. In many cases, the robbers displayed remarkable tenacity and hard work. A team of 5-8 people got to one of the relatively "fresh" and therefore carefully guarded pyramids, breaking through a 150-meter long tunnel from an ordinary cemetery in limestone rock! Having made their way into the underground corridor of the pyramid, the robbers got into an empty dead-end chamber. By tapping, they discovered that the burial chamber was under their feet, but under the thickest and strongest slab weighing 40 tons. But they broke through this plate too, then heating it, then pouring it with cold water, then processing it with special tools. The thinnest of them squeezed through a narrow hole, which had been previously smeared with olive oil. And he already passed on the values from below to his companions. The treasures were pulled out during the four-day Ibis Festival. Considering that in this case the criminals spent whole weeks in small confined spaces, it must be admitted that their work was as hard as that of the miners. True, not so honorable, but more highly paid ...
The largest 146-meter pyramid of Cheops dates back to 2560 BC, when the subjects still treated their rulers with due respect, and to prevent attempts at robbery, it was considered sufficient to organize regular patrols in the vicinity of the pyramids. However, by the period of the Hyksos invasion (18th century BC), looting was already widespread, only exacerbated by the appearance of the invaders. The expulsion of foreigners is associated with the founder of the XVIII dynasty, Ahmose I, but, having restored the country's independence, he, of course, could not restore the former patriarchal customs. And they decided to build new royal tombs away from populated areas in the Nile delta (not far from the modern capital of Cairo) - upstream To Luxor, where the so-called Valley of Kings and Queens appeared, guarded by a special guard of Medjays ... Pharaoh Thutmose decided to build a settlement of Set in this area -Maat for artisans who built pyramids. Their duties, in addition to construction work, included the protection of the complex itself. But since the supply and payment for work was carried out with interruptions, the Egyptian proletarians considered it fair to seize part of the contents of the tombs and sell these products and values to dealers. The beginning of the systemic looting of tombs is associated with the end of the Ramessid era - we are talking about a series of pharaohs who bore the name of Ramesses, including the time record for the duration of the reign of Ramesses II (1279-1212 BC). In 1188 BC, the country was struck by a large-scale famine, then a series of internecine conflicts began. During the XXI dynasty (1075-945 BC) the situation got out of control to such an extent that the mummies had to be taken out of the tombs and hidden in new unremarkable burials. At the same time, the treasures that still survived were often appropriated by priests or new pharaohs. Even today, you can get an idea of the scale of the plunder, if you move a little away from the tourist routes. In some areas, wooden fragments of sarcophagi or bandages used to wrap mummies stick out right from under the sand. In the era of the Ptolemies and the Romans who replaced them, the divine halo around the pyramids dissipated completely, and if interest in their contents decreased, it was more likely because there was nothing to plunder - with the exception of the mummies themselves. They reached them already in the enlightened 19th century, when the fashion for Ancient Egypt appeared in Europe. Westerners began to buy up mummies, which entered the market in incredible quantities. It got to the point that the bandages used to wrap them were cheaper than ordinary paper. In the early 1900s, an American businessman bought brown burial ribbons, planning to use them to package groceries. Such a cynical abuse of the dead and hygiene led to an outbreak of cholera, and the enterprise was closed, although it cost dozens of people their lives ...
To prevent uncontrolled robbery in semi-independent Egypt, the Antiquities Service was created, usually headed by French scientists. And in the 1870s, a huge amount of ancient jewelry and works of art suddenly appeared on the "black" antique market, which prompted reasonable assumptions about the discovery by looters of a previously unknown burial complex. The then head of the Antiquities Service, Gaston Maspero, put pressure on the local governor, Daud Pasha, and he began an investigation. The police arrested a representative of one of the tomb robber clans - Ahmed Abd el-Rassoul. Even under torture, he denied everything, but after his release, he unexpectedly confessed himself. It turned out that his relatives and companions, despite all the shocks he had experienced, did not want to increase his share. In retaliation, he spoke about the "not exposed" temple complex in the town of Deir el-Bahri. The Merited Marauder stumbled upon him by accident when the hooves of his donkey fell into a half-drowned mine. In 1881, an expedition equipped with Maspero surveyed this complex, which became a real sensation. Almost intact were as many as three temples that belonged to the "dogixos" pharaoh Mentuhotep II (XXI century BC), as well as Queen Hatshepsut and Thutmose III (XV century BC). In addition, mummies and other pharaohs, including Ramses II, were found in the complex. This long-liver was reburied four times after his death. It was his mummy that aroused the greatest interest not only of scientists, but also of the general public. The remains of the pharaohs were transported to the Cairo Museum. On June 1, 1896, in the presence of the ruling Khedive of Egypt and 17 ministers, the mummy of Ramses II was swaddled, and the lotus leaves lying between the bandages were handed out to those present as souvenirs. Maspero later said that when the body of the pharaoh was transferred to the display case, apparently as a result of muscle contraction, Ramses's hand rose, as if turning a curse against those present. Some of the guards howled in horror, adding a dramatic note to the scene. However, the curse, even if it took place, hardly worked. The problems began at the very mummy of the pharaoh, which began to slowly decompose. In 1976, the remains of Ramses II were taken by plane to France, where experts brought them back to normal and returned to their homeland a year later. The French were so helpful that a new sarcophagus was made for the mummy, covered with a blue-lapis lazuli blanket woven in the Louvre workshops with images of three golden lilies (the heraldic flowers of Upper Egypt and royal France). The restoration of the mummy of Ramses II helped to tone down the tone of Cairo's demands for the return of other ancient Egyptian rarities acquired by the French under dubious circumstances. If the "curse of Ramses II" did not work, then with regard to the so-called "curse of Tutankhamun" there is an opposite opinion. The tomb of this pharaoh was discovered on November 4, 1922 by the British expedition of Lord Carnarvon. By Egyptian standards, it was very small and, apparently, was accidentally filled up during the construction of the neighboring pyramid. As a result, before the arrival of archaeologists, none of the grave robbers ever got to her. As one of the researchers later wrote: "The number of strange deaths among those who took part in the autopsy of Tutankhamun's grave, to put it mildly, exceeds the size of the mathematical probability." Medical scientists have hypothesized that in the confined space of the pyramid of Tutankhamun, the bacilli of some unknown disease, characteristic only of Ancient Egypt, were preserved. When the tomb was opened, this virus infected the members of the Carnarvon expedition, leading many of them to premature death.
Journal: Mysteries of History # 8, February 2021 Heading: Historical Investigation Author: Dmitry Mityurin
It's me, Edita, Torch and Snout. We have known each other since we got to a college for a degree in electrical machines and apparatus. But what unites us is not a passion for lectures and empty auditoriums, but an endless love for speed, and, more specifically, for motorcycles.
My beauty, 600cc SibiErka, or a razor, as they say. 2004, modification RR, bore two millimeters larger than the regular f3. Not a special pride, but it drags well. I didn’t put the arrow down, fuck it, and without that it squeezes the testicles. What else from nishtyakov, these are trunks, from Germany, specially ordered for a new frame and bolts in color. But the main plus is weight, it is light, and I roll it home for the winter. I put it in the second room, so there is no need to pay for the garage, and at night, if you turn on the LED lighting, it’s just space.
Edita, aka Valera. And Edita was driven by this. Here it is better to immediately explain what's what, so that they don't think anything. First, he is very similar to a dude from the Factory, whose grandmother is an old Soviet singer, but the second is important, he often says - "yes you go." Everybody says - "Come on," and he says - "Yes, you go." It is not clear what influenced more, Valera became Edita in short.
And now he has the most serious and interesting motorcycle, with an unusual acquisition story that he constantly tells. This is a real American Kawa six, brought straight from the states, although with a new customs clearance rate, plus the haul, it cost him three more mowers than here.
But Edita doesn't give a damn, he believes that he has a completely different, not strangled motzak. Because everything goes to Europe and Asia with less power and not so frisky, but brutal, full-strength motorcycles are already supplied to America. All this is complete nonsense, my opinion. He just wanted to do a trick with customs clearance. In the states, there is a slightly different standard for measuring engine power, where it is removed from the wheel, and not from the drive shaft, as we do. Therefore, there are fewer horses and he took this Kava, being confident that he would overtake the system by twenty horses. Imagine his surprise when he saw that there were 128 horses at the docks instead of the expected 109 horses. In short, the customs officers turned out to be smarter.
Our third one is Snout, but it's been a year since he became Frank, because Snout sounds kolkhoz and he doesn't like it either to us or to him. And the new, progressive Frank is much better. Why Frank? Yes, because in the carrier that went last year there was the main character, the same muzzle as ours, and his name was Frank. That is why Snubbed Frank became.
Here he, this Snubby Frank, had a very insignificant motorcycle, it was written KTM on the side and he didn’t ride a shit. But on the other hand, it was the newest, straight from Byk Land and the most unkempt device of all ours, because Frank's father said this, “we need to take only new equipment!” And took it for his son's admission to college.
Torch remained, at first he was without a motorcycle at all, we didn't even communicate with him, but at the end of the first year, just in time for the summer, he was able to find some dough somewhere and rolled in a real chopper. It was hard to believe in it, because such a unit, and it was albeit an old, but still alive Harley, on which chrome is really chrome, and iron is really iron. And there is such oh, how many babosiks. And especially for Torch, because Rodaki took everything to us, and apartments, and Motsaks, and Torch is special. He is a visitor from Saransk. And if he had grandmothers, it was only for a rented hut. Of course he could save, but to collect so much, it would take a year or two to save. Although he didn't give a damn whether he was saving up or not, he appeared in style, that's a fact. And most importantly, as Torch himself said, his softail added a powerful classical chord to our orchestra! ... rrrrrrrr
This story began after Edita's next record, he came out of thirty minutes at the race along the Moscow Ring Road in which he miraculously did not fly onto the removed asphalt in the Profa area. Without pinching the hole, at two hundred and fifty I was able to leisurely go into the next row. It was just luck. And then he said - "that's it, enough crazy races." Which meant two things, he is not lying and he has at least some brains in his head. And after these words, I remember, there was a moment of silence, there was no one to say something special.
That's when Torch offered us the game. He said, - "let's go and spread rot on the rubbish guys on Rublyovka!" He just said so, the big ass. Nobody understood what he meant, so the first question was not who, but what?