Scientists rank Mesopotamian clay tablets with cuneiform writing on which ancient people applied important information using a sharpened bamboo stick to the first books. The content was mainly household: how much was spent and how much was received. The oldest cuneiform tablet discovered by archaeologists dates from about 3500 BC. ... Clay tablet with cuneiform writing The plates were placed in a special storage box - the first type of binding known in history. Assyrian king Ashurbanapal, who ruled in the 7th century BC. ., was the first curator of such a clay library. His collection included tens of thousands of books in various fields of knowledge - mathematics, medicine, history, geography. During his reign, there was a serious fire that completely destroyed the splendor of the royal palace, but the clay books survived. The literary works of the thinkers of Assyria and Babylon have survived to this day. Editorial uznayvse. u invites you to find out about the largest library in the world.
The ancient Egyptians used papyrus for writing, a reed plant widespread in Egypt and growing along the banks of rivers. Its long stems were cut into strips, dried, glued into a long roll, and smoothed with stones.
Such papyrus tapes were used to write with thin reeds and natural paints. All text was written in black except for the first word of each paragraph - it was customary to highlight it in red, hence the expression "red line". Such scrolls were kept in leather and wooden cases. In Ancient Egypt, they wrote on the papyrus. The Civilization of Ancient Egypt belongs to the famous Book of the Dead. These are scrolls with religious hymns, which were usually placed next to the departed. The oldest copies of the Book of the Dead discovered by archaeologists date back to the middle of the second millennium BC. Fragment from the Book of the Dead.
The Slavs got their own writing in the middle of the 9th century, when the alphabet of Cyril and Methodius was invented on the basis of the Greek alphabet. In the days of Ancient Russia, scribes used wooden planks, birch bark and parchment - rawhide - in their work. Old Russian birch bark scroll A copy of the first of the famous Old Russian books - "Novgorod Psalter" of 1036, has survived to this day. These are three linden planks with a wax-filled base and holes for fastening. The Novgorod Psalter Among other well-known Old Russian books is the Ostromir Gospel of 1056. This book takes a worthy place among the exhibits of the National Library of St. Petersburg. Fragment of the "Ostromir Gospel"
Before the advent of paper in China, bamboo was used for writing. The first extant Chinese book, The Diamond Sutra of 868, was written on it. The content of this book is not just written in solid text, but printed using an imprint: these are original engravings collected in one five-meter scroll. Before the advent of paper in China, people used to write on bamboo sheets.
In India, bamboo and animal skins were used as writing, but dried and smoothed palm leaves were more commonly used. Then the finished texts were neatly stitched together and bound with a wooden binding. In India, in ancient times, they wrote on the treated skin of animals.
The ancient city of Pergamum (now Bergam in Turkey) was once the capital of the Pergamon kingdom in Asia Minor. The library located there kept more than 200 thousand books on its shelves. The manuscripts were created by philosophers on parchment - a special material made on the basis of uncut rawhide of animals. Parchment is tanned rawhide. One of the oldest books is the Codex Sinai, dated to the 4th century AD. Christian covenants and epistles are written on its parchment pages. On our site you can also find an article about the biggest books in the world.
A book in the modern sense of the word is a special type of product consisting of separate pages or sheets on which some information is printed or handwritten.
In the Proto-Slavic language it was called "book". Presumably, this word was borrowed from the ancient Turkic languages. It meant "scroll."