Turkey and coffee are two inextricably linked concepts. It is not for nothing that Turkish coffee is included in the list of intangible objects protected by UNESCO! It is interesting that this list does not include any particular sort of coffee beans, but the drink itself - all stages, from the recipe, the preparation process and ending with the traditional culture of its use. You can read the article about Turkish coffee on the official UNESCO website here.
Coffee has long become an integral part of the culture of the Turks and a favorite drink not only of local residents, but also of guests of the country. How do you choose a really good coffee? How to bring home a real symbol of Turkey and then cook it the way it has been cooked since the distant Ottoman times?
Let's take a closer look at Turkish coffee traditions with MoyStambul. u
If you haven't been lucky enough to taste real Turkish coffee yet, you have lost a lot. But it's never too late to fill in the gastronomic gaps! This unique drink is one of the most popular and beloved not only in Turkey, but throughout the entire planet. Turks are justly proud of their coffee and consider it a national treasure. It is not for nothing that a Turkish woman who is going to get married must certainly master the art of making coffee - this skill is considered almost the main advantage of the bride!
There are a number of versions about how coffee penetrated the territory of Turkey and won the hearts of its people. The most obvious of them says that coffee beans were first brought into the territory of the state at the time when Suleiman the Magnificent was its ruler. This is around the middle of the 16th century. Ozdemir Pasha, the ruler of the province of Yemen, which at that time was part of the Ottoman Empire, presented a drink with a divine aroma to the padishah. The coffee taste conquered the Sultan no less than his invigorating aroma, and after a while a new kitchen "specialty" appeared in the palace - the main coffee maker.
At first, coffee was only available to members of the nobility. But soon the drink began to be served in the ubiquitous public coffee houses, in which people from different classes loved to rest and relax. Under a cup of coffee, they philosophized, had lively conversations on the topic of politics, played backgammon. But initially, coffee shops were intended exclusively for men. The fair sex also had the opportunity to enjoy the life-giving drink, but only at home. Interesting fact: a law was passed according to which a spouse could file for divorce if her husband was not able to treat her with a couple of cups of coffee every day.
A unique coffee recipe, which has survived to the present day almost unchanged, was invented by one of the Sultan's coffee makers. Unfortunately, his name is not indicated in the annals. But it is known for certain that when the padishah tasted coffee according to the new recipe, he was so amazed and delighted that he presented his courtier with a gold bar the size of a fist. In the same period, newfangled kitchen utensils called cezve began to appear in all kitchens, which today is known throughout the world as a Turk. It was customary to prepare Turkish coffee exclusively in a metal jug with a narrow neck and an elongated handle. This tradition has remained unchanged to this day.
But there were historical periods when the coffee drink went through hard times. With the coming to power of Padishah Murad IV, coffee was banned. The fact is that the common people had a lot of complaints about the manner of the Sultan's government. Naturally, people gathered in coffee houses to discuss and criticize the ruler over a cup of coffee. Murad IV decided that the best way to get rid of criticism was to ban coffee shops and coffee on pain of death. Favorite public institutions were demolished, but the attitude of the people to the authorities did not change from this. People continued to gather and drink coffee, but in secret, in massively opening underground coffee houses.
If the level of sweetness of the drink was not specified when ordering, then, as a rule, medium-sweet coffee is served.
What to bring home with Turkish coffee?
To make real Turkish coffee at home, it's not enough just to buy beans. Attributes are as important as raw materials. For a true coffee lover, a complete coffee set, which contains everything that is necessary for brewing a national Turkish drink, will be an ideal gift. Such sets are sold in bazaars and specialized shops.
About the site "It's funny"
It just so happened that on each postage stamp the name of the country that issued this stamp is printed. But one of the countries received from the world community the privilege of not fulfilling this requirement - as a sign of special merit in the development of mail. And even her mistakes turned into success, sometimes raising the cost of the postal "marriage" to heaven.
Philatelists all over the world with great pleasure plunge into the analysis of these multi-colored paper rectangles, looking for special signs and marks on them, hunting for those stamps that have become famous due to some amazing story or acquired the status of a rarity. But at the time the stamps were invented, their purpose was quite practical: to provide prepayment for the mail forwarding.
Since the time people learned to write, they began to send messages to others, even if at first they were not paper letters in envelopes, but clay tablets with wedge-shaped signs scrawled on them. The function of delivering the message to the addressee was most often performed by slaves or hired servants. True, the prototypes of the postal service appeared a long time ago - in any case, a real postal system was organized in the Roman Empire, however, only for state purposes: if the procedure for delivering public, official correspondence was fine-tuned to the smallest detail, then personal correspondence was provided by the inhabitants of the empire on their own.
The first postal services for the population appeared in Europe in the 16th century
The main purpose of the postal service of any ancient state was the transmission of messages to different levels of military units. Later, in the Middle Ages, the most intensive correspondence was carried out by representatives of the clergy: both within the church system and communicating with the rulers of states and the aristocracy. Therefore, monks were often used to deliver letters. It was in the interests of the kings to create a network of courier services, where messengers were always ready, ready to rush with an important document or news to the addressee. But these royal messengers were of no use to subjects who wanted to conduct their own, personal correspondence. If you already had to send a letter, you had to find a friend who will deliver the message, and then find the means to pay him.
Armaf is a perfume brand from the United Arab Emirates that specializes in the creation of high quality luxury men's and women's fragrances. The history of the birth of the company began in 1963, although the first fragrances were released only in 2014.
In the 1960s, the United Arab Emirates enjoyed the status of the main perfumery manufacturer in the East, which influenced the creation of the famous Fakhruddin holding, which united many brands. In addition to other large companies, the holding also includes the Sterling Parfums concern, which specializes in the production of Armaf brand products.
Work on the creation of the first compositions began back in 1998. The best masters carefully selected the composition, where each component would convey the spirit, strength, mystery and attractiveness of oriental traditions. So, in 2014, the first 2 perfumes were presented to the public: Myst for women and Oros Limited Edition for men. These creations quickly won the recognition and love of their consumers. And already in 2015, a whole collection of the brand was released, which received the bright and eloquent name Armaf Luxe Collection. The collection included such great fragrances as Aura, Craze, Voyage and Voyage Bleu. All of them are intended for men, but they are distinguished by their style and character: woody-spicy, fougere, oriental. Gradually, the company released new creations, in which citrus, fruity, floral and aldehyde accords sounded.
The main secret of the popularity of all the brand's products lies in the use of ancient recipes in combination with the latest technologies. This allows the most experienced craftsmen to create elegant and unique compositions that find their fans all over the world. The fragrances perfectly harmoniously combine modernity, the latest trends in the perfumery world and the best oriental traditions.
Also, the masters use exclusively high-quality natural raw materials, which makes each perfume perfect, with the highest standard. By the way, the company, as a rule, does not disclose the names of its perfumers, because these are the terms of the contracts with them.
The brand continues to actively develop, supplying new masterpieces to international markets. At the moment the company has offices in more than 20 countries. In company stores you can find not only fine perfumes, but also deodorants, body care products and other products. Some of the brand's fragrances have a similarity to well-known expensive perfumes. But the gradual disclosure of any "analogue" of this or that perfume conceals a completely new, unique sound.
All the brand's bottles deserve special attention - luxurious, rich, bright, with an emphasis on the best oriental traditions. Every detail of each bottle, from the glass to the cap and spray button, testifies to the high craftsmanship of the manufacturer. Holding an Armaf perfume in your hands, you will definitely realize the full value and luxury of the fragrance. This is a real work of art, a special style that strikingly distinguishes Armaf against the background of European perfume companies.
Furnaces are made of a material that must withstand sharp temperature fluctuations over the years. Similar requirements apply to the finish that covers the outer walls. At the same time, paints for metal furnaces must also protect the material from moisture and other external factors. Therefore, such compositions contain titanium dioxide and other components that are found in popular paintwork materials.
As noted, the basis of paints and varnishes for the furnace is titanium dioxide, which takes up to 50% of the volume. Thanks to this component, such compositions can withstand heating to a temperature of +1850 degrees.
Titanium dioxide also acts as a binder. This component prevents the decomposition of the paint into components and prevents the ignition of the treated surface in contact with an open flame.
Similar paintwork materials, in addition to titanium dioxide, contain:
Each component can withstand prolonged exposure to high temperatures.
High-quality heat-resistant paint must meet the following characteristics:
Also, depending on the operating conditions, when choosing a heat-resistant paintwork materials, it is recommended to give preference to materials with a service life of 5-12 years. The optimal heat-resistant paint is one that can withstand a drop in ambient temperature to negative values.