Operation Rolling Thunder

On March 2, 1965, the US Air Force launched an air offensive against North Vietnam. At first, they were going to meet in two months, but the operation lasted almost 4 years. During all this time, 304,000 sorties were carried out, 8 million tons of bombs were dropped.

The bombs were different. The US Air Force tested its entire arsenal in Vietnam, except perhaps for atomic and hydrogen munitions. Today "AiF" proposes to arrange an analysis of the first five of the most memorable means of air warfare used during Operation Rolling Thunder.

Number one - napalm

Many people remember him from the movie "Apocalypse Now" and the monologue of Lieutenant Colonel Kilgore with the words: "I love the smell of napalm in the morning."

Napalm is an incendiary mixture consisting of gasoline or diesel and various thickeners. In addition to the flammability of oil products (the substance gives a temperature of 800 - 1200 ° C), napalm acquires the properties of sticking to all surfaces and maintaining a fire for a long time. This substance was developed against Japanese cities during World War II, but the peak of use was in Vietnam.

Between 1963 and 1973, some 388,000 tons of napalm bombs were dropped in the region. Although at first they were not bombs: napalm was used in unfeathered cigar-shaped containers that tumbled when falling.

Number two - Agent Orange

Strictly speaking, Matter Orange was not a weapon. But it left a far more notoriety than bombs and missiles. "Orange", so named because of the orange color of the barrels in which it was stored, was a mixture of several acids. Used as a defoliant, a substance that causes plants to shed their foliage. So the Americans fought the jungle in the territory of South Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand, in which the guerrillas were hiding. The trouble is, Agent Orange contained dioxin. Once in the human body, this chemical substance causes liver and blood diseases, massive congenital malformations of newborns and disruptions to the normal course of pregnancy.

The US Army sprayed 72 million liters of defoliants in South Vietnam. Several tens of thousands of people died from them after the war. In total, there are about 5 million Orange victims in Vietnam. American servicemen also suffered from them. By the way, the US Environmental Protection Agency used this substance to pollinate forests and national parks until 1978.

Number Three - Shrike

Operation Rolling Thunder

Women's hairstyles of the 18th century are famous for their unusual appearance. They were extravagant and wild. Only by the end of the century, more laconic styling options became popular. You can read further in the article about how the hairstyles of that time changed, whether it is permissible to do them today, how and in what cases.

Characteristics of 18th century styling

The hairstyles of the 18th century (female versions resembled three-dimensional sculptures) over the course of the century, slightly modified, following the fashion trends of that time.

There are several features characteristic of 18th century styling:

  • voluminous fleece;
  • large and small curls near the face;
  • excess powder to maintain the shape of the hairstyle (sometimes it fell on the shoulders of women );
  • complex weaves;
  • multi-level designs;
  • wire frames;
  • decorative elements that are considered unsuitable for creating a beautiful hairstyle today ...

Women of that time decorated their hair with cages with stuffed birds, inserted dry flowers, bottles, metal and wooden sticks into their hair. They sewed caps from stockings and put them on their hair, complemented such hairstyles with beads, brooches and pearl threads. The hairstyles of the 18th century looked very shocking.

Fashion trends of the 18th century in women's hairstyles

What hairstyles have been popular throughout the century, their names and a brief description.

The name of the hairstyleYears of popularityDescription “Fontange” 1700-1720The hair was twisted into large curls, and pinned to the head with hairpins, in the form of a rim. On top of this powdered structure, a lace cap was put on, which was pre-treated with a starch solution. The lace was getting hard. It "stood" on top of the hair, giving the hair additional volume. "Sissy", "Butterfly", "Sentimental" 1720-1730 These hairstyles almost did not differ from each other. They consisted of small curls gathered in bunches on the sides. The crown of the head was decorated with a wreath of beads and dried flowers. This hairstyle had a flattened shape. The main volume was on the back of the head and behind the ears. "Kossel" or "Small powdered" 1730-1745 Curled curls were laid around the head in several rows. Twisted each strand in the shape of a shell. Sprinkle a lot of powder on your hair. A few curled strands were left below, which were supposed to lie on the shoulders. "Polonaise" 1745-1760 The hair was combed up, using an egg-shaped wire frame. At the forehead, the strands were combed smoothly. A rim of 2 tight curls was laid over the entire head. A flat chignon was attached to the back of the head. The hairstyle was decorated with large bird feathers, dried flowers and pearl threads. "Explosion of Sensibility", "Voluptuous", "Secret Passion" 1760-1780 Hairstyles, invented by Marie Antoinette, were the craziest and most shocking in appearance. These were tall structures on wire frames, richly decorated with flowers, beads, branches and even stuffed animals. Experienced hairdressers of that time made sculptures in the form of ships and statues from the hair of women. - for Tit1790-1800 Short haircuts, where the hair was curled into medium-sized curls. Decorated such styling modestly. It was enough 1 flower or 1 pearl thread.

At the end of the century, women who did not want to part with long hair wore neat hairstyles with curled locks, reminiscent of Greek braids and modern "Malvinki".

How did hairstyles change during the 18th century?

Historians and stylists distinguish several stages when women's hairstyles of the 18th century radically changed.

  • Beginning of the century (1700–1720). High hairstyles were in vogue, complemented by starched caps made of lace and light-colored fabrics. The women curled their hair by winding it on rags dipped in hot water. When they were dry, the hair was sprinkled generously with special powder. She fixed her hair like a modern spray lacquer.
  • Mid century (1730–1760). Wreaths of large curls have become popular. Decorations in the form of dried flowers, hosiery nets and pearl beads have become fashionable. Ribbons were tied on the head, and tiaras were put on. Lace bonnets have become old-fashioned. The shape of the hairstyles has changed slightly. Now the hair was not combed up. The bulk was transferred to the back of the head and temples.

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