410 years ago, in January 1610, the heroic defense of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery was completed. The siege of the monastery by the Polish-Lithuanian troops and the Tushinians lasted almost sixteen months - from September 1608 to January 1610. The enemy retreated due to the successful offensive of the army of Prince Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky.
The turmoil in the Russian kingdom was in full swing. In the summer of 1607, a new impostor appeared in Starodub - False Dmitry II. The battles between the tsarist governors and the supporters of the "true tsar" begin. The second impostor was less independent than Grigory Otrepiev. He was completely manipulated by the environment. From the very beginning, real power under the "tsar" belonged to the ataman Ivan Zarutsky and the Pole Mekhovetsky, who was then ousted from the post of hetman by Roman Ruzhinsky. Polish gentry and adventurers continued to make up a significant part of the core of the impostor's army.
In addition, the Rzeczpospolita has just ended another confrontation between the rokoshan (rebellion against the king, to which the gentry had the right to defend their rights and freedoms) and the king. In the decisive battle near Guzovo, the hetmans Zolkiewski and Khodkevich defeated the rebels. Then the Senate forced the king to come to terms with the vanquished. The troops were disbanded and a large number of mercenaries and gentry, both from the king's camp and from the rokoshan, were left idle. They happily responded to the call of "Tsar Dmitry" and moved to Russia. The impostor's army was replenished with thousands of well-armed, experienced and professional fighters. This allowed the imposter's army to recover from previous defeats from the tsarist governors, and even strengthen. Now the armies of Tsar Vasily Shuisky were opposed not only by rebellious serfs and thieves' Cossacks, but by a full-fledged cavalry corps of the Commonwealth, which at that time had no equal in its fighting qualities in Eastern Europe. Also, the army of the impostor was replenished with thousands of Zaporozhian Cossacks and Don Cossacks of Zarutsky.
April 30 - May 1, 1608, the army of the impostor defeated the army of Prince Dmitry Shuisky on the Volkhov River and opened the way to Moscow. After the Volkhov battle, the army of False Dmitry divided. Most of the troops passed through Kozelsk and Kaluga, loyal to "Tsar Dmitry", and then through Mozhaisk came to Moscow from the west in order to avoid meeting with another tsarist army under the command of Skopin-Shuisky. The troops of False Dmitry set up camp in the village of Tushino, northwest of the capital. Therefore, they were nicknamed Tushins. The detachment under the command of Lisovsky moved on a long detour through the outskirts of Ryazan cities. Lisovsky's troops occupied Mikhailov and Zaraisk, near Zaraisk, with a sudden blow, they crushed the Ryazan army of Prince Khovansky and Lyapunov. As a result of this victory, Lisovsky, with a quick attack, captured the strong fortress of Kolomna and significantly replenished his forces at the expense of the remnants of the previously defeated detachments of "thieves" (troops of Bolotnikov and "Tsarevich Peter"). In June, in a battle near Medvezhy ford (on the Moscow river between Moscow and Kolomna), Prince Kurakin defeated Lisovsky, captured his "outfit" - artillery and a large baggage train. The Foxes fled to the Tushino camp.
From the summer of 1608 to the spring of 1610, the Tushins besieged Moscow. True, there was no strength for a full-fledged siege. An entire army was stationed in Moscow. Shuisky had every opportunity to replenish the garrison and supply the capital. At the same time, there were two systems of governing the country - in Moscow and Tushino. There were two tsars, two governments with prizes, the impostor had his own patriarch Filaret (Fyodor Romanov), some cities were subordinate to "Dmitry", others to Shuisky. The Tushino "tsarek" generously distributed lands to his supporters (they were taken away from the supporters of Tsar Vasily), appointed the governor to the cities. Tushintsy and Poles scattered across the country, trying to subjugate as many lands and cities as possible, and seize their resources. With the arrival of a large detachment of hetman Jan Sapieha to the impostor, detachments of "thieves" went to all parts of the country, trying to take possession of the rich regions. Some cities themselves "kissed the cross" of False Dmitry, others forced them. The Sapieha Poles captured Pereslavl-Zalessky, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Vologda, Totma, then Kostroma and Galich. The foxes subdued the interfluve of the Klyazma and Volga from Vladimir and Suzdal to Balakhna and Kineshma. From Tsar Shuisky, Pskov, part of the Novgorod land, Uglich and Kashin were deposited. The Volga region was worried.
Everything that happened was like the end of the world. Tushintsy - Poles and Russian "thieves", smashed and crushed any resistance. Robberies, savage atrocities and murders on a huge scale covered almost the entire European part of the state. Moreover, often Russian "thieves" committed atrocities worse than the Polish-Lithuanian discoveries. The civil war took many different forms. "Moscow" robbed monasteries, patriarchs and palace lands in order to supply the capital. In response, the peasants created their own self-defense units, asked for help from the Tushins and intercepted Moscow's supply lines from Kolomna and Vladimir themselves. Other peasants who suffered from the Tushins created partisan detachments and slaughtered individual units of the impostor. The nobles split, some went over to the side of False Dmitry II (the so-called "Tushino flights"), others continued to stand for Tsar Shuisky, although his position among the nobility was greatly shaken. The townspeople rose up against the "strong people", the cities fought for different kings.
At the same time, the people of Tushino encroached on the spiritual heart of Russia - the Trinity-Sergius Monastery. The monastery, which was founded by Sergius of Radonezh, at the beginning of the 17th century was the largest and richest monastery of the Russian kingdom. The glory of the monastery and especially its miracles, which came from the relics of saints and icons, annually brought here thousands of pilgrims, including merchants, boyars and the royal family. The monastery received rich monetary and land contributions, usually for the "commemoration of the soul." In the middle of the 16th century, the monastery became a strong fortress - it was surrounded by a stone wall with 12 towers, where almost a hundred guns were placed.
With the beginning of the siege of Moscow by the Tushin people, the Trinity Monastery became an important strategic point. The monastery provided a connection between the capital and the northeastern regions, the rich Volga and Pomor towns. Therefore, the Shuisky government sent a detachment of archers and Cossacks to the monastery under the command of Grigory Dolgorukov-Roscha and the Moscow nobleman Alexei Golokhvastov. Also, the monastery was defended by the townspeople, peasants and representatives of the clergy. The number of the combat-ready part of the garrison was about 2.5 - 3 thousand people. Both the "queen-nun" Martha (Princess Staritskaya) and the "princess-nun" Olga (Godunova) were under siege.
The Government of False Dmitry also appreciated the importance of the Trinity Monastery. Its capture made it possible to strengthen the blockade of Moscow, to cut it off from the east of the country. An important consideration was the plundering of the monastery treasury, the rich monastic volosts. For Russian and Polish-Lithuanian "thieves", the robbery of the richest monastic treasury was the main stimulus for the siege, especially after the recognition of "Tsar Dmitry Ivanovich" by Zamoskovye and many northern cities. Also, the transfer of the local brethren under the arm of the "Tushino king" was supposed to strengthen his authority in the country. Therefore, a detachment of Yan Sapieha, reinforced by Tushino "thieves" and Cossacks under the command of Lisovsky, went to the monastery. The number of Tushino rati is estimated at about 12-15 thousand people with 63 guns (according to other sources - 17 guns). In the course of hostilities, the army of Sapieha and Lisovsky could increase with the arrival of new detachments and decrease to several thousand when the troops were leaving to conduct hostilities in other places.
September 23 (October 3) 1608 Tushino troops were stationed on the heights in front of the monastery. The residents of Tushin hoped for an easy victory, that the monastery would quickly pass under the arm of "Tsar Dmitry". However, the garrison “strengthened from treason” by kissing the cross at the relics of Sergius and resolutely rejected the offer of surrender. The residents of Tushin burned the settlements surrounding the monastery and were forced to launch a siege and build their own fortified camp.
The shelling of the walls with rifles and light field guns, as well as the indiscriminate attack, did not cause any positive effect. In early October, Sapieha had to start siege work. The Poles decided to dig under the Pyatnitskaya tower, located in the central part of the southwestern wall. Then detonate a mine and make a gap. But the garrison learned about this from the defector and the "tongues" captured during the sorties. The counterattacks of the fortress garrison made it possible to find out the location and direction of the enemy mine gallery. Enraged by the activity of the monastery's defenders, the residents of Tushino opened fire on the temples from the heavy cannon "Teschera", which was delivered from near Moscow. The shells damaged the Trinity Cathedral, the icons of the Archangel Michael and St. Nicholas the Wonderworker. By return fire, the monastery's artillery suppressed the enemy battery.
When choosing a moonshine still, there are many nuances to consider. Features, basic equipment, quality of materials and appearance are only very general highlights. And the more difficult the choice is, the more approximately “identical” models you come across in the search engine results. How not to get lost in such a variety? We'll have to be patient and study the issue carefully. Better yet, compare your favorite models.
Let's compare the moonshine stills "Schnappser XO4" and Dobry Zhar "Lux" in order to clearly show what little things you should pay attention to.
First, take a close look at the structures - already at this stage you can notice a tangible or not so much difference. Both devices represent the class of two-inch columns-constructors, both are equipped with selection units, modern stills. For the convenience of water connection, both models are equipped with pneumatic fittings.
Moonshine still Dobry Zhar "Lux"
The Lux moonshine still comes with a “not native” cube, but a Luxstahl cube. In this case, this is good, since the "native" cubes of "Good Heat" are distinguished by rather thin steel. So far, from the visible difference, only the branded insulation for the drawer side of the model from "Schnappser" is noticeable. In order to figure out which is better to choose - "Schnapser XO4" or Good Heat "Lux", we will study the "passports" of the models.
Let's bring all the possible parameters of interest to us into a table in order to compare them more conveniently:
Now we see that the difference “inside” is also minimal, but noticeable: “Schnapps” has a diopter in the basic kit, and the manufacturer's warranty for the device is much higher (10 years versus three), which indicates confidence in the quality of the product. The selection unit here is presented more technologically advanced than that of the “Lux” model. We also studied the reviews of the Schnapser XO4 moonshine still, and came to the conclusion that users praise the model, and there are no significant complaints about the design and technical parameters. Reviews of the Dobry Zhar “Lux” moonshine still speak of the good quality of the model, but some owners have questions about the efficiency of the refrigerator.
The price of the compared models differs insignificantly (at the time of the review, "Schnappser" is only one and a half thousand rubles more expensive).
A fairy tale for the whole family to read "How the merchant's wife fasted" by Pisakhova
Is she really so pious, was the merchant's wife really such a correct life that she was simply tender! This is how a merchant's wife will sit down in the morning to eat pancakes, and eat and eat pancakes: with sour cream, and caviar, with salmon, with mushrooms, with herring, with small onions, with sugar, with jam, with different sighs and drinks. And so it eats piously, which is even scary. Eat, eat, sigh, and eat again. And when the fast came, well, then the merchant's wife began to fast. In the morning I opened my eyes, I wanted to drink tea, but tea is impossible, therefore - fasting.
During fasting they did not eat either dairy or meat, and whoever fasted strictly did not eat fish. And the merchant's wife fasted with all her might - she did not drink tea, and she did not eat any crushed or sawn sugar, but she ate special sugar - lean, like candy. Duck pious boiling water with honey drank five cups, and five cups with lean sugar, five cups with raspberry juice, and five cups with cherry juice, but don't think that with tincture, no, with juice, and ate them with black crackers. While the boiling water was drinking and breakfast was ripe, the merchant's wife ate a salted plate of cabbage, a grated plate of radish, a plate of mushrooms of small mushrooms, a dozen pickled cucumbers, washed it down with white kvass. Instead of tea, I began to drink sbiten treacle.
Time is not worth it, it has come by noon. It's time to dine. Lunch is all lean-lean! At first, thin oatmeal with onions, mushroom pickles with cereals, onion soup. For the second: fried milk mushrooms, baked rutabagas, salty mushrooms - bend with salt, porridge with carrots and six other different cereals with different jams and three jelly: kvass jelly, pea jelly, raspberry jelly. I ate everything with boiled blueberries and raisins.
- No, no, I won't eat poppies, I want the company not to have poppy dewdrops during the whole post.
After lunch, the fasting woman drank boiling water with cranberries and marshmallow.
And time goes on and on. For afternoon boiling water with cranberries and marshmallow and pauzhne, the turn came.
The merchant sighed, but nothing can be done - you have to fast!
I ate soaked peas with horseradish, lingonberries with oatmeal, steamed rutabagas, flour turi, soaked apples with small pears in kvass.