With a more skeptical approach to sources, the inclusion of foreign chronicles in the work and a deep analysis of all material, the heir of Daniel Galitsky appears before us in a completely different light, and it is this point of view that now prevails among modern historians. So, for example, long after the death of Leo, the forgery of letters on his behalf continued, since it was he who had the greatest weight in the eyes of his descendants as a just ruler, which added weight to the forgeries. The good memory of the prince has also been preserved in the people's memory. Foreign chronicles also characterize Lev Danilovich as a fairly successful and influential ruler, albeit not as skillful a politician as his father, but probably an even more talented commander and organizer.
The future prince of the Galicia-Volyn state was born in about 1225. Since childhood, he was constantly with his father as one of the eldest sons, and after the death of his brother Heraclius - and as his father's heir. He was smart, brave and skilled in military affairs. It is he who is credited with improving the throwing machines adopted from the Mongols. On the other hand, Leo was not without flaws. The most important of these was excessive fervor, which resulted in outbursts of poorly controlled anger. He was also very headstrong and independent and, under certain conditions, could go against the will of his relatives and even his father, which later led to conflicts within the Romanovich dynasty. Nevertheless, Daniel highly valued his heir - and that is why he mercilessly used his talents for his own purposes. For the first time he began to act independently after the invasion of Batu, when Daniel put his son to rule in Przemysl.
And this city together with the land, it should be noted, were far from simple. Many trade routes converged here and there were deposits of important resources, primarily salt and swamp ore. The latter also led to a highly developed local metallurgy. As a result, the Przemysl boyars turned out to be richer than the Volyn ones in the 12th century and in their behavior rather resembled the Galician tycoons who sought to become an independent political force and concentrate in their hands all places of "feeding" on the territory of the principality. Lev Danilovich, of course, rushed with full dedication to fight the boyars and concentrate in his hands the entirety of local power and sources of resources and wealth. This is what led to the fact that later the elite of the principality, including the clergy, constantly supported Rostislav Mikhailovich in his claims to Galich, and hence Przemysl.
The methods of fighting the boyars turned out to be quite non-standard. In addition to the usual repression and confiscation of property, a rather interesting method of occupying land by the prince was also used by creating communities controlled only by him. For this, both migrants and refugees and prisoners of war of any ethnicity were used: Hungarians, Poles, Lithuanians, Polovtsians, Germans and Czechs. This method, despite its originality, turned out to be quite effective, and by the 1250s the Przemysl boyars were significantly weakened and at an accelerated pace they were leaving the territory of the Romanovich state or were adjoining the "new" boyars, much more loyal to the central government.
The first baptism of fire as a commander Leo happened to be accepted in 1244, when his squad blocked the path of the Hungarians led by Rostislav Mikhailovich. He lost that battle, and largely due to the passivity of the squad of the allied Belzian prince, Vsevolod Alexandrovich, who probably later joined Rostislav and for this was deprived of his lands, although, alas, there is no specific information about his fate. Despite this, the next year, in the battle of Yaroslav, Leo's initiative and bold actions largely ensured the victory over the challenger's troops. In the future, Daniel made full use of his son's military leadership talents, and when he had to leave Russia due to the approach of Burundi, the king of Russia knew that he was leaving his state in good hands.
The return of the king of Russia home in 1262 turned out to be a very difficult test for his eldest son. All this time, Leo was in his possession, saw the army of Burundi and kept his finger on the pulse of the Horde policy, knowing that strife had begun to flare up there. Daniel also knew this, who, having regained power, immediately started talking about a big war with the steppe people for Russia. He was not embarrassed by the fact that Burundai destroyed all the unions of the Romanovichs, with the exception of Poland. He perceived the turmoil in the Mongol Empire as the dying cramps of all the power of the steppe people, which pushed him to an early action against them and gain complete independence. Daniel's authority was so strong that all his sons, brothers, and nephews obeyed him. Everyone except Leo. Leo was well aware of the real state of affairs and believed that the campaign against the Horde would now lead the state of the Romanovichs to dismemberment and death at the hands of another Burundi, who would not be content with the obedience of the princes and the destruction of the city walls.
This caused a conflict between the Romanovichs and eventually led to a split between them. No, the family still held together, tried to solve important issues together, but from now on, contradictions and conflicts began to grow between them. The most acute was the confrontation between Leo and his father, and as a result, Daniil Galitsky actually alienated him from the inheritance of the state, making him the heir of his brother, Vasilko, and after him - Schwarn, who became his beloved son, and began to conflict with his older brother. Thus, Daniel, striving all his life for one-man management, actually betrayed himself, leaving behind the old laws of inheritance, which he did not remember all his life. In addition, a redistribution of appanage principalities between relatives was carried out, as a result of which Lev lost Galich, retaining only Przemysl and Belz, although Burunday personally left him to rule the entire Galician principality, and Vasilka - the entire Volynia. Schwarn, who was not the heir either by primogeniture or by ladder, received two of the most valuable inheritances in the entire state - Galich and Holm, which put him forward as the first and main heir of his father. Daniel was determined to fight the steppes, but soon fell seriously ill, and died in 1264. He never came to terms with his son.
After the death of Daniel in the Galicia-Volyn state, de jure divided into two parts, a strange situation with power was established. According to the will of the deceased king of Russia, Vasilko remained at the head of the state of the Romanovichs, but in fact he did not try to play the role of a leader, limiting himself to control over his Volyn principality. It is possible that Vasilko behaved this way out of a desire not to attract the attention of the khan, who could punish the prince for violating his will to divide Galicia and Volhynia. In the Galician principality, two brothers ruled jointly, Leo and Schwarn, who somehow reconciled and became co-rulers, however, real power belonged to Leo, since Schwarn at the same time was busy with Lithuanian affairs with his relative Voishelk, who voluntarily transferred power over the principality to his son-in-law and retired to a monastery in Volyn. With all this, both Vasilko and Schwarn recognized the primacy of Leo, who thus turned out to be the sovereign of the Galicia-Volyn principality, although de jure he had a co-ruler, and besides, he did not control Volyn.
Such a division of power could not but weaken the potential of the Romanovich state, since after the death of Daniel it actually disintegrated. Vasilko reigned in Volhynia, Schwarn controlled Kholm and Galich, and Leo was left with his inheritance in Belz and Przemysl. The relatives remained bound by agreements on mutual assistance, but very quickly they began to weave intrigues against each other, since they objectively interfered with the self-assertion of any of the Romanovichs as the king of Russia. Fortunately, this situation did not last long: both Schwarn and Vasilko died in 1269. Only Mstislav Danilovich and Vladimir Vasilkovich remained the closest relatives, and both recognized the supreme power of Leo, even if they did not have much sympathy for him. This was especially true of Vladimir, at whose court the Galicia-Volyn Chronicle was written, which gave Leo a characterization of a vile, dishonorable prince. Meanwhile, the prince of the Galicia-Volyn state, Lev Danilovich, tried with all his might to keep the achievements of his father.
In the early period of his reign, the prince of Przemysl and Belz had hard times. On the one hand, it was necessary to help his relatives, but on the other, they did not favor him, sooner or later they could and should have betrayed him, and therefore they had to either dose or not send help at all. Despite the reconciliation, relations with Schwarn remained difficult, especially in light of Lithuania's receiving themes. The time until 1269 was spent, in fact, on strengthening personal possessions and forging alliances. The development of their own possessions, which began in the 1240s, continued at an even greater pace during this period. Following the example of his father who founded Kholm, Lev Danilovich back in 1245 laid the foundation for a new city on the border of his two estates: Belz and Przemysl principality. This city quickly reduced the located near Zvenigorod to a minimum value, and also began to actively absorb the significance and influence of Galich and Przemyl, which during this period began to experience a rapid decline. As some might have already guessed, this city became Lviv, where in the early 1270s Lev Danilovich moved his capital.
In the search for allies, the prince's wife, Constance of Hungary, turned out to be extremely valuable. She was the daughter of the Hungarian king and therefore could ask him for the support of her husband. For this, Leo even visited Hungary itself several times, where he was treated kindly by his father-in-law, White IV, and received promises of support in the event of a war with his relatives. The value of Constance was not limited to this alone: she was very friendly with her sisters Kunigunda and Yolanda, who were married respectively to the Krakow prince Boleslav V the Shy and Boleslav the Pious from Kalisz. They corresponded regularly, came to visit each other, and given the fact that the Krakow prince listened to his wife in everything, and the Kalisz prince was also looking for friends and allies, this meant the formation of a "union of three princesses." In the future, the relationship between Leo and the Boleslavs will turn out to be very strong, and they will regularly help each other get out of troubles, showing a rare loyalty to the alliance for that time.
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I bought this TV three months after its release. "What do you mean, this TV just came out, there are no spare parts for it yet. On order, wait for three more months. / P>
My daughter is in first grade. Our school is quite peculiar (in the best sense of the word) and they have project activities from the first grade. x are supervised by high school students who are supervised by teachers. They are given time to learn to plan, interact, etc. a child comes to us and says: Mom, Dad, we need to make a project and tell and show some famous building or place. Jena immediately suggested the Kinderdijk mills (in Holland, since we are a little connected with her). In short: this is such a tourist place, where there are still old mills that pump water from lands that are below sea level and are surrounded by dams. Such places are called polders.
How these mills work schematically:
And so what it is and how it should look roughly, we understood, but how to do it is not yet clear. I realized that it would not quite work out of cardboard, too much cutting and glueing would have to be done, and most likely it would fall apart. I decided that there would be papier-mâché, which I myself had never done before. I really didn't want to cook glue and generally wanted more ideas on what and how to do, so I turned to the pick-up for advice, of course I was sent to Google. Nevertheless, a couple of people turned out to be normal people and suggested the option with PVA glue, which turned out to be a great idea. (thanks to @DeDLINe, @ Lesnik65, @avetidalwave) Armed with new knowledge and having an idea of what I need now, I went to Leroy to shop. Bought: - Welded mesh - PVA glue, a bucket of 2.5 liters - Plastic clamps The mills themselves told us to buy from smart paper. For pasting the layout, I decided to use a roll of paper for drawing from ikea.
First, I made a frame from the mesh, fastening it together first with clamps, then bending the wire from the mesh itself at the joints.
The cut pieces of the net bend rather tightly and after the nippers are sharp enough, so the fingertips ached the next day. Now I think that I should have taken a thimble. "So let's drink to the fact that common thoughts come to us in a timely manner!"
Now it's time to paste it all over
Although the glue is not toxic, it certainly tricks and I recommend opening the windows. Also: washing your hands from PVA glue is, of course, easier than from many other things, but it is much more convenient if you work with gloves.