In 1924, the Special Committee of the Artillery Directorate of the Red Army and the RVS of the USSR announced the first competition in the USSR for the creation of an automatic rifle. From 8 to 28 January 1926, the first evaluation tests of rifles designed by V. Dyagterev, I. Kolesnikov, V. Konovalov, F. Tokarev and V. Fedorov. Tokarev presented a 7.62-mm rifle with automatic recoil based barrel recoil with a short stroke and locking with a rotary clutch, a permanent magazine for 10 rounds. Tokarev's and Fedorov's rifles passed the tests satisfactorily, but were sent for revision, due to their structural and technological complexity, unsatisfactory strength and reliability. At the next competition in June 1928, the rifles of Tokarev, Fedorov, Degtyarev-Kuznetsov, Degtyarev-Bezrukov were presented. According to the test results, 25 pieces were ordered. rifles Tokarev and Degtyarev, with preliminary elimination of comments. In 1930, Tokarev and Degtyarev rifles were tested, during which insufficient reliability of the samples was revealed, numerous delays in firing and breakdowns of parts were noted, but Tokarev's rifle showed fewer delays and better accuracy of fire. On May 22, 1929, the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR clarified the requirements for the future individual infantry weapons, these should be self-loading rifles with a barrel fixed when fired, chambered for 7.62 mm. Tokarev was forced to stop further research in the development of an automatic rifle, with a scheme of automatic operation with a short barrel stroke, and begin the development of a new rifle with a fixed barrel.
Since 1931, designs by Tokarev, Degtyarev and Simonov continue to participate in the competition. According to the results of five years of work, the S. Simonov, which is adopted by the Red Army under the name "7.62-mm automatic rifle model 1936" or "AVS-36". But already on May 22, 1938, a new competition for a self-loading rifle was announced by the Decree of the USSR Defense Committee. The competition was attended by F. Tokarev, S. Simonov, I. Rakov, N. N. Rukavishnikov Menshikov, D. Kochetov and S. Sklizkov. The tests ended in September 1938, at the conclusion of the commission, not a single sample met the requirements, but for such qualities as survivability and reliability, the Tokarev system rifle was distinguished, which, apparently, was due to the quality of production of prototypes. After some changes were made on November 20, 1938, repeated tests were carried out. This time his rifle performed better.
On February 26, 1939, the Red Army adopted the "7.62-mm self-loading rifle of the Tokarev system of the 1938 model" or "SVT-38". On March 7, 1939, Fyodor Vasilyevich was awarded the Order of Lenin and a cash prize of 50,000 rubles. Together with F. Tokarev, his creative team, design engineer N. Vasiliev, master A. Kalinin, mechanics N. Kostromin and A. Tikhonov, milling machine operator M. Fomin, design engineer M. Churochkina, fitter I. Promyshlyaev. On July 17, 1939, the Tokarev self-loading rifle was put into mass production.
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In 1835, returning from London, Samuel Colt reflected on the multi-barrel pistols he had seen in England, and one of the rotating mechanisms of the Corvo brig pushed the designer to create a revolver. Without waiting to return to American soil, Colt carved a prototype out of wood.
In 1836, Samuel Colt opened an arms factory in Paterson, New Jersey, and launched the production of five-shot Colt Paterson capsule revolvers in. 8. The revolver had a single-action trigger mechanism, with a hidden trigger, which was unfolded after the hammer was cocked, there was no trigger guard. A fixed front sight was attached to the barrel, and a fixed rear sight was installed on the trigger. To load the revolver, it was required to remove the drum, fill the chambers with gunpowder, press in the bullets with a special tool, install the drum on the revolver and then use the device to install the capsule chamber on the breeches. In 1839, a pressing arm and a special window in the front were introduced to speed up reloading without removing the drum.
But the buyer was not interested in the products of the Colt's Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company, which led to its bankruptcy in 1842. Revolvers were unreliable and extremely unsafe during reloading. The largest order was made by the Republic of Texas - 200 revolvers for the Texas Navy, the Texas Rangers purchased revolvers privately.
In 1880, Japan entered service with an 11-mm Remington bolt-action rifle, but during the Sino-Japanese War it was revealed that not tall and puny Japanese suffered greatly from its recoil. Then the head of the rifle department of the Tokyo Arsenal, Colonel Naryakira Arisaka, proposed a bolt-action rifle for a 6.5-mm blunt-pointed bullet with a lead core in a cupronickel sheath. Arisaka endowed the sleeve of his cartridge with a groove and a small rim (0.315 mm) at the same time, the length of the sleeve was 50.7 mm, and the mass of nitrocellulose lamellar powder was only 2.04 g, which allowed a bullet from an 800-mm barrel to reach a speed of no more than 725 m / s , the gunpowder from the sleeve with such a barrel length burned out entirely, so there was practically no muzzle flame when fired, and its sound was low. This is how the Type 30 rifle of the 1897 model appeared.
In 1906, following the results of the Russo-Japanese War, it was revealed that severe dust and contamination of the mechanisms forced the rifle to be disassembled and cleaned often (disassembly and assembly turned out to be quite difficult), the aiming frame was knocked out and deformed. It was necessary to strengthen the ejector and the feeder spring, as well as prevent the loss of the magazine box cover. A receiver cover was added to the design of the rifle, which opened simultaneously with the movement of the bolt, and protected the mechanisms from contamination. Having eliminated the shortcomings in service, a new Type 38 rifle and a new cartridge were adopted, with a pointed bullet weighing 8.9 g and with a cylindrical bottom. This bullet had a thickened shell in the head part, but since cupronickel in comparison with lead had a lower density, the center of gravity of such a bullet shifted back, which positively affected its stability on the trajectory and at the same time increased its armor-piercing properties.
The Arisaka Type 38 rifle is the most massive Japanese weapon exported. On August 24, 1914, a Russian military-technical commission left for Japan, which purchased 35 thousand Arisaka rifles and carbines and cartridges for them. Colonel of the Russian Imperial Army V. Fedorov conducted a full cycle of tests of the Japanese Type 38 rifle, during which he revealed the rationality and thoughtfulness of its design, and in terms of accuracy and accuracy of fire, it surpassed the Mosin rifle. Over the next two years, the Russian Empire acquired 600 thousand Japanese rifles and carbines of the Arisaka system.