Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors classification

The colon is approximately 4/5 of the total length of the colon. Four sections are distinguished in it: the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon. The latter passes into the rectum.

Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers. Usually this pathology is referred to as "colon cancer". Tumor neoplasms of the colon and rectum are combined into one group of oncological diseases and are called colorectal cancer.

Usually, the appearance of a malignant tumor of the colon is preceded by the appearance of a benign neoplasm - a polyp. There are different types of polyps, and they have different potential for malignancy. The risks increase with age, so everyone who is 50 years old or older is recommended to undergo a screening endoscopic examination - a colonoscopy.

Depending on in which anatomical department the tumor has arisen, cancer is isolated in the transverse colon, ascending and descending, sigmoid.

Causes of Colon Cancer

It is impossible to say for sure why a particular person developed a malignant tumor in the colon. Cancer is always the result of a certain set of mutations in the cell, but what led to these mutations is a difficult question to answer.

There are some risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing colorectal cancer:

  • Age. The risk of getting sick increases after age 50. Apparently, this is due to the fact that over time, more and more genetic defects accumulate in the cells of the human body.
  • Heredity. If your close relatives (parents, sisters, brothers, children) have been diagnosed with malignant colon tumors, your risks are also increased.
  • Unhealthy food. The development of cancer is promoted by the "Western" diet, which contains a lot of red and processed meat, fast food, convenience foods, few fruits, vegetables and fiber. There are especially many carcinogens in food prepared by frying, grilling, and barbecuing.
  • Low physical activity. People who lead a "sedentary" lifestyle are at increased risk.
  • Overweight. People who are overweight or obese are more likely to develop colon cancer and have a worse prognosis.
  • Smoking. The development of malignant tumors in the intestines is promoted by smoking, excessive alcohol addiction.
  • Hereditary diseases. Parents can pass on certain mutations to their children that make them more susceptible to developing cancer. The most common hereditary diseases in this group are Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • Chronic inflammation of the colon: ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease.

None of these factors are 100% likely to cause colon cancer. Each of them only increases the risks to a certain extent. Some of these factors can be influenced, for example, starting to eat right, giving up alcohol and cigarettes, and playing sports.

Other factors such as heredity, inflammatory bowel disease, age cannot be influenced. You need to be aware of your risks and check regularly. You can be screened using modern equipment at the European Clinic.

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Intestinal tumor: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Often people with carcinoid develop a syndrome with the appropriate name. It proceeds as follows: patients experience discomfort in the abdomen, problems with heart valves, the respiratory system disrupts activity, and diarrhea begins. In rare cases of an already rare disease (1 patient in 20,000), symptoms have been recorded: ulcers, diabetes mellitus, skin and mental problems, weight loss, constant or temporary hunger and seizures. However, the disease is gaining momentum. The number of cases, according to statistics, is increasing. Age patients, mainly men, are more susceptible to pathology.

It is important to note that depending on the location of the cancer, the disease is dealt with by doctors of such specializations: gastroenterologist, hepatologist, pulmonologist and others.

The main foundation in which NET development takes place is the neuroendocrine cell. Tumors developing in them have a rare structure and origin, as well as the degree of malignancy. More cells are found in the respiratory organs (25% of cases), the gastrointestinal tract (50% of cases), the mammary, parathyroid and prostate glands.

So far, scientists have not been able to establish why patients develop the disease. But a popular version related to genetics has been developed. The main factor, according to scientists, is predisposition. Thanks to research in the field of genetics, the appearance of such tumors is explained.

The main symptom of neuroendocrine neoplasms is carcinoid syndrome. The disease develops after the spread of metastases to the liver. Symptoms of the syndrome: problems with the gastrointestinal tract, heart valves, hot flashes, disorders of the respiratory system.

What is pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNES) are a group of neoplasias (tumors) of different origin, structure and clinical manifestations. Depending on whether these tumors can secrete hormones and amines, causing carcinoid and other clinical syndromes, they can be classified as functional (F-NEN) and non-functional (NF-NEN). Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are the most common neuroendocrine tumors.

Most PNEN are of low grade but malignant potential. They grow slowly and remain stable for many years, at least when they are small. However, without treatment, most of these tumors grow and eventually metastasize to the liver.

Features of neuroendocrine tumors

Neuroendocrine cells are not tied to any particular organ. They are scattered throughout the body. Although tumors most often occur in the digestive tract, more rarely, they are found elsewhere. In 15% of cases, the primary tumor cannot be found.

Neuroendocrine tumors can produce hormones that cause certain effects in the organs, and because of this, the patient experiences certain symptoms. Such neoplasms are called functioning. If hormones are not produced, it is a dysfunctional tumor.


Find out what types of intestinal tumors are diagnosed more often ☎ Doctor's consultation Online ➤ Classification of tumors by location and shape

The intestine is an organ that provides digestion and performs excretory functions. This is a vital organ that does its job every second without knowing rest, and it is exposed to a variety of diseases, one of the most terrible is intestinal cancer. Oncology treatment must be carried out without fail, and the earlier it begins, the more chances of success there will be. It is impossible to refuse any method of getting rid of a tumor, because each one gives an additional chance. Today we will talk about the alternative treatment of intestinal cancer, the symptoms of this disease are the first thing that we will consider.

The problem of bowel cancer

According to statistics, the intestine is the second most common organ subject to cancer (the first is the lungs). More than 600 thousand people with bowel cancer of various stages are recorded a year, but this is only 70 percent of all patients, the remaining 30 never learned about the terrible diagnosis! The reasons for the appearance of malignant neoplasms are as follows:

There is another high-risk group of people - the frequent use of antibiotics in youth (studies have shown that 40 to 70 percent of patients with intestinal cancer in their youth often received antibiotic treatment for more than two months).

Disease Provocateurs

In 80% of all cases, colon cancer is caused by the degeneration of benign polyps into malignant ones. Despite the rapid development of medicine, no one knows the exact provocateurs who cause the disease today. But still, in medical practice, the following factors provoking the disease are distinguished:

Factors such as bad habits, prolonged constipation, frequent use of anti-inflammatory medications, a sedentary lifestyle, etc. are also distinguished.

The main symptom is:

  • The presence of a feeling of heaviness and distention in the abdominal cavity.
  • Frequent constipation followed by diarrhea.
  • Significant decrease in appetite.
  • Aversion to food.
  • The appearance of blood in the stool.
  • Temperature 37 and above, which lasts for a long period.

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If you find at least one or two of the above symptoms, then you need to urgently consult a doctor to make the correct diagnosis.


Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry or Amla)

A document created by researchers at Vater Muller Medical College Hospital in India titled Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a miraculous berry for cancer treatment and prevention, says:

"Preclinical studies have shown that amla has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemic, antihypercholesterolemic, hepaprotective, nephroprotective and neuroprotective properties."

The researchers note that amla may promote cancer treatment and prevention due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential and its ability to protect against the harmful effects of chemotherapy and radiation. Amla contains compounds with anticancer activity such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2, which can inhibit and / or prevent the growth and spread of tumors and cancer cells.

Indian gooseberries can be eaten raw or cooked, but you will most likely find them in capsule, powder, tea or extract form. If you are suffering from stomach cancer and want to cure it, then you need to use this Indian folk remedy along with other anti-cancer natural medicines and natural cancer treatments for at least 4 consecutive months.


For the prevention and recovery of the body after the treatment of intestinal cancer in traditional medicine, there are many useful tools.

One of them is a lard-based ointment. It is prepared as follows: you need to take about 150-200 g of internal pork fat; it should be melted; add 2-3 teaspoons of comfrey root (pre-ground). Add one tablespoon of the milestone plant, which also requires additional processing similar to comfrey; keep all this for about 2 hours in a water bath; add 1-2 tablespoons of celandine juice; keep all this for about an hour in a water bath; let the resulting product cool. It can be used to lubricate areas damaged by bowel cancer or to inject ointment into the colon itself.


A significant number of detailed studies in Germany and the United States have confirmed the ability and identified an important potential role for Astragalus in cancer treatment. For example:

  • Researchers at the University of Texas at Houston reported that cancer patients receiving astragalus had twice the survival rate compared to the group receiving only placebo.
  • It is often used in combination with other herbs. In 1994, in an Italian study (Morazzoni, Bombardelli), breast cancer patients were given a combination of Ligustrum and Astragalus. Patients who received this mixture showed a 10% to 50% reduction in mortality.
  • In another study of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, the group taking the mixture of the two herbs showed an average 130% increase in life expectancy.
  • Astragalus doesn't just increase interferon levels - there is strong scientific evidence that it benefits liver function (which is often impaired in cancer patients). In China, astragalus is widely used in the treatment of hepatitis. This appears to significantly reduce toxin levels, increase interferon levels, and inhibit viral protein expression, although it has little effect on normal DNA. (Zhang 1995, Fan 1996)

The Oncology Department of the Yusupov Hospital uses innovative methods of cancer treatment, the clinic's specialists have proven themselves professionally in the treatment of skin neoplasms, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, bowel cancer, and digestive system organs. The clinic's specialists are involved in various research and development in the treatment of cancer, oncological diseases, and have international certificates. Yusupov Hospital is accredited for clinical trials, which allows the use of drugs that cannot be used by other medical institutions in Russia. The use of unique drugs will help the patients of the Yusupov hospital to increase life expectancy and its quality.


So far, scientists have not figured out the exact cause of any oncology. But there are certain statistics of patients who were exposed to certain factors. So far, based on it, oncologists can provide data on risk factors.

Stages of stomach cancer

Stomach cancer is the second most common. This is a dangerous and serious disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The danger of this pathology is that it does not manifest itself for a long period. The outcome of the tumor process depends on the stage of the disease, location and selected treatment.

The following stages of gastric oncology progression are distinguished:

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The very first symptoms are usually very subtle and more like a common indigestion. Later, the symptomatology becomes brighter, but the patient begins to sin on an ulcer or gastritis. At the last grade 4, the symptoms become more painful and vivid.

  • Weight loss - the stomach does not digest food well and the overall digestion process deteriorates.
  • Fast satiety - because of a large tumor that fills part of the stomach, satiety occurs faster.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Headaches, nausea, vomiting with blood - stage 4 stomach cancer secretes waste products and poisons the body, which causes general intoxication.
  • Belching with an unpleasant odor, severe heartburn.
  • A dark colored chair.
  • Diarrhea alternating with constipation.
  • Abdominal pain that cannot be relieved even with strong pain relievers.
  • Weakness, severe fatigue, drowsiness.
  • Weak bones.
  • Anemia due to internal bleeding.
  • A decline in immunity.
  • High temperature.

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