Diabetic nephropathy; what is it? Stages and treatment

The term diabetic nephropathy (Kimmelstil Wilson's syndrome, glomerulosclerosis) means a set of pathologies of the glomeruli, arteries, kidney tubules that arise as complications of diabetes mellitus. The disease is widespread, capable of progressing, often leads to the need for a kidney transplant, and death.

What is Diabetic Nephropathy

One of the dangerous complications of diabetes mellitus is nephropathy, which is a violation or complete loss of kidney function. The pathogenesis of the disease is determined by several factors:

  • Hyperglycemia - there is a violation of the structure and function of proteins in the renal membranes, activation of free radicals that have a cytotoxic effect.
  • Hyperlipidemia - by analogy with atherosclerosis, plaque formation occurs in the renal vessels, which can lead to blockage.
  • Intra-glomerular hypertension - manifested by hyperfiltration, then there is a decrease in the cleansing function of the kidneys, the proportion of connective tissue increases.

Diabetic nephropathy is referred to in the patient's history as chronic kidney disease with stage indication. According to ICD-10, the disease has the following codes:

  • for insulin-dependent diabetes, complicated by renal ailments - E 10.;
  • for renal failure and insulin dependence - E 11.;
  • if in diabetes there is insufficient nutrition, kidney damage - E 12.;
  • for nephropathic disorders against the background of a specified form of the disease - E 13.;
  • for unspecified form of diabetes with kidney damage - E 14..

Symptoms

Clinical manifestations of the disease depend on the stage of the disease. At the initial stage, nonspecific symptoms appear:

  • decreased performance, increased fatigue;
  • general weakness;
  • poor exercise tolerance;
  • occasional dizziness, headaches;
  • the appearance of a feeling of a stale head.

As Kimmelstil Wilson syndrome progresses, manifestations expand. The following clinical signs of the disease are observed:

  • the appearance of edema of the face in the morning;
  • increased frequency and soreness of urination;
  • dull pain in the lumbar region;
  • < li> constant thirst;
  • increased blood pressure;
  • cramps in the calf muscles, pain, pathological fractures;
  • nausea and impaired appetite.

Reasons

Diabetic nephropathy; what is it? Stages and treatment

It seems that on the eve of a new trilateral meeting to investigate the MH17 crash in Donbass, some media have decided to let their revelations go to the second round. In this situation, experts advise journalists to pay attention to other aspects of the tragedy, and not create a "rotten mushroom in the swamp."

The date of the new trilateral meeting dedicated to the investigation into the circumstances of the crash of the Malaysian Airlines Boeing plane in Donbas in 2014 is still being negotiated. The Ambassador of the Netherlands to Moscow Rene Jones-Bose, who visited SPIEF-2019, told reporters about it.

"We would like to have good negotiations," the diplomat explained to RIA Novosti, commenting on the possibility of a meeting between representatives of Russia, the Netherlands and Australia.

The topic of the investigation of the catastrophe in Donbass has been heard again in recent days. Thus, the earlier edition of Novaya Gazeta

stated that on the day of the incident on the Russian-Ukrainian border in the Rostov region, there were allegedly more than 170 Russian servicemen who were part of the air defense units. Journalists refer to documents on safety on public roads during the movement of Russian troops in June 2014, extracts from orders for setting up allowances for servicemen and issuing dry rations, as well as telephone messages.

However, the experts with whom Constantinople talked were not impressed by the "sensation".

Bad sensation

As the former head of the anti-aircraft missile forces Sergei Khatylev recalled, we are talking about the so-called Kursk version, which the investigators have already studied with the involvement of international organizations, the Ministry of Defense and the Prosecutor General's Office of the Russian Federation. As a result, the materials and experiments carried out proved that the version about the shooting of the 53rd brigade is simply untenable.

Any journalist can familiarize himself with the documents by sending a request to the defense department.

"Surveying from space, satellite, intercepting radio communications, encrypted communications, and so on, - showed in detail that this could not be. The shooting was carried out from the territory of Ukraine. And today - 98-97-95% that the firing was carried out by the air defense of Ukraine, and this is directly confirmed by both documents and those interceptions that were carried out by the Americans and other intelligence agencies, and so on, "the expert explains.

Khatylev recalls that the very situation at the moment when Boeing was defeated indicated that there were aircraft of the Ukrainian armed forces in the air. Moreover, the expert points out that in the frequency range, in all other radiating ranges, the operation of the APU complex was clearly recorded, at a certain frequency, at a certain time interval.

"A launch was made. If you watched all these broadcasts and information on the investigation that you showed, there is a missile number and a batch number, when it was manufactured, when it arrived in Ukraine, and so on. Therefore I want to say that today there are enough objective documents to prove that the Buk missiles were fired from the territory of Ukraine by the Ukrainian armed forces, "he said.

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